• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the principle endocrine glands?
Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Parathyroids, Thyroid, Thymus, Adrenals, Pancreas (islets), Ovaries, Testes
decrease in serum calcium level --> parathyroid gland--> increase in PTH (parathyroid hormone) --> increase in calcium mobilization from bone and calcium absorption in gut ---> increased serum calcium level ----> parathyroid gland--> decrease in PTH levels (increased calcium turns system off)
Negative feedback for calcium regulation
A low hormone level and up regulation, or an increase in number of ____________. A high hormone level and down regulation, or a decrease in number of ___________.
fat-soluble hormone binds to an
intracellular receptor
water-soluble hormone (peptide) binds to a
membrane receptor on the plasma membrane
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
target organ: adrenal gland
f: regulates growth and secretion of the adrenal gland, particularly cortisol and the androgen steriods
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
target organ: anterior pituitary
f: promotes secretion of melanin & lipotropin by anterior pituitary- skin darker
somatotropic hormones
growth hormone (GH)
target organs: muscle, bone. liver
f: regulates metabolic processes related to growth and adaption to physical and emotional stressors, including skeletal growth, muscle growth, increased protein synth. , increases liver glycogenolysis, increased fat mobilization
target organ: breast
f: milk production
thryoid stimulating hormone (TSH)
target organ: thyroid gland
f: increased production and secretion of thyroid hormone
luteinizing hormone (LH)
target organ: in women:ovarian follicle
in men: leydig cells
f: ovulation, progesterone production
f: regulates spermatogenesis, testosterone production, testicular growth, and production of androgens
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
target organ: in women: ovarian follicle
f: follicle maturation, estorgen production, acts on Sertoli cells to stimulate estrogen from androgens and synthesis of androgen-binding protein
target organ: adipose cells
f: fat breakdown and release of fatty acids
target organ: adipose cells
f: analgesia; may regulate body temp, food and water intake
hypothalamic hormones stimulate the release of hormones from the _____________ ______________
anterior pituitary
Thalamus is superior to the __________ (w/in the 3rd ventricle) and the ________ is the most inferior (sits in the sella turcica)

hormones synthesized in the hypothalamus are actually released from the ______________
A decrease in hypothalamic function would cause a _________ in releasing hormone production, thus a decrease from the anterior pituitary hormones, except for _________

(b/c hypothalamic hormone is a prolactin inhibitory hormone)
w/ diabetes
a loss of endothelial cells leads to __________________ which leads to proliferation of subendothelial smooth muscle, which leads to fibrous plaque formation (_________________)
exposure to platelets

w/ diabetes
hyperglycemia leads to increased polyol concentration in arterial wall = proliferation of _______________ __________ __________, which leads to atherosclerosis
subendothelial smooth muscle
w/ diabetes tissue anoxia leads to __________________
w/ diabetes
low-density lipoproteins --->proliferation of subendothelial smooth muscle ----> _____________
Insulin ----> proliferation of subendothelial smooth muscle ---> ____________
thinning of scalp hair
increased body and facial hair
moon face
supraclavicular fat pad
trunk obesity
thin extremities
easy bruising
Symptoms of Cushing Disease
outer covering of bone
"growth plate"
epiphyseal plate
articular _________
the marrow of bone
yellow marrow
in cancellous bone the lamellae are not arranged in concentric layers but in plates or bars termed ____________
that branch and unite w/ one another to form an irregular mesh work
the knee joint is of what type?
short term (anaerobic) sources of muscle activity
1. ATP --> ADP + inorganic phosphate + energy

2. phosphocreatine + ADP <---> Creatine + ATP

3. Glycogen/glucose + Inorganic phosphate + ADP ---> Lactate + ATP
long term (aerobic) sources
1.glycogen/glucose + ADP + inorganic phosphate + O2 ---> H20 + CO2 + ATP

2. free fatty acids + ADP + inorganic phosphate + O2 ---> H20 + CO2 + ATP

3. Cratine kinase catalyzes the reversible reaction of ATP to ADP: Creatine phosphate + ATP <-----> creatine + ATP
routes of infection to the joint
-hematogenous route
- dissemination from osteomyelitis
- spread from an adjacent soft tissue infection
- diagnostic or therapeutic measures
- penetrating damage by puncture or cutting
2 main types of malignant childhood bone tumors

ewing sarcoma
Name the three types of muscle & where we could fine each type
Skeletal - attached to bones
Cardiac - bulk of the wall of the heart
Smooth - the walls of hollow structures
What are the two important types of proteinous filaments in a sarcomere
What two molecules are attached to the thinner filament (actin) that is important to the contractile action
tropomysin (wrapped around in a spiral fashion)
What electrolyte is CRITICAL in making contraction happen?
What are the two important types of cells in bone? Which one moves minerals INTO bone? Which one does the opposite?
osteoblasts - build
osteoclasts - extract minerals from bone and put them back into circulations in times of low calcium
* synthetic calcitonin can help move calcium move into bone
* parathyroid hormone (PTH) takes calcium from bone and puts into circulation
What is the main neurotransmitter involved in skeletal muscle contraction?
What are the sources of ATP for muscle contraction?
4 sources of ATP:
-stored atp
-anaerobic gylcolosis 1 glucose = 2 ATP
-aerobic component(require oxygen to be present)- kreb's cycle = 2 ATP, electron transport chain = 32 ATP

total 36 ATP
Why is it better to break a bone in your ankle rather than “sprain” it?
bone is very vascular - potential to heal is high

tendons and ligaments have very poor blood supply