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91 Cards in this Set

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NFPA

Air, heat, fuel

Extinguisher Classifications

A- common combustibles


B- flammable liquids and gases


C- live electrical equipment


D- combustible metals


K- cooking media

Egress

Need emergency power for at least 2 hours and plan developed by architect and approved by fired department.


Consider local code limit on how far you can go before reaching an exit and have adequate number of stairwells and exit doors

Public Assembly

limited by capacity for safe egress from location

Fire Systems

fire detection, fire notification and communication, fire suppression, fire control/containment

Automated Fire Detection

Smoke, heat and flame detectors, sprinkler system. Can all be either hard wired or battery

Single Station Fire Alarm

Sound only at location of detected fire

Multi Station Fire Alarm

Sound at all stations and central hub

Remote Alarm

Connected to a remote location like a local fired station

Sprinkler Parts

Fusible link (detect heat and goes off), escutcheon (protection), cap

Can't have anything within ... of sprinklers

18 inches

Wet Pipe Sprinkler

pipes filled with water, temp activated, pressurized water source

Dry Pipe Sprinkler

unheated space where pipes are prone to freezing, air pressurized, slower than wet

Clean Agent Sprinkler

inert/ionization for areas with sensitive equipment

Wet Chemical Sprinkler

Type k fires, auto shut off supply of fuel to kitchen equipment

Fire Control Goals

section off portions of building to not allow spread

Fire Dampers

installed in ductwork where duct penetrates walls and floors

Smoke Dampers

inhibit movement of smoke through duct work

Openings in Firewall

Must be protected by rated devices

Firewall

Sectioned off portions of building

Horizontal Fire Containment

automated or magnetic door closers, fire containment rolling doors

Pressurized Stairwells

increases air pressure to keep relatively smoke free, AHU used to push fresh air into stairwell and must be connected to emergency power supply

Fire Prevention

cleanliness, proper storage, care with tools, ff and e flame retardant treatments, watch for compromised firestopping, don't block egress, care with flammables, clean laundry linen

HVAC

heating, ventilation, air conditioning

Sensible Heat

dry bulb temp

Latent Heat

Wet bulb temp, effected by relative humidity

Dew Point

point at which water condenses

Condensation

conversion of water vapor to a liquid

Relative Humidity

amount of water vapor present in air as a % of amount needed for saturation at the same temp

BTU's

units used to measure power of heating/cooling

Radiation

waves

Convection

air/liquid

Conduction

direct contact

HVAC Goals

control db temp, provide fresh air, provide circulating air, exhaust and odors/irritants, provide clean air, raise or lower humidity levels

Sensible Load

removal or addition of heat

Latent load

removal or addition of moisture

Thermal Comfort Influences

room air temp, room air movement, relative humidity, activity level in room, clothing, temp of room surfaces

Supply Air

newly conditioned

Return Air

returning back for reconditioning

Exhaust Air

expel from building

Decentralized Single-Piece HVAC

equipment provides heating and cooling, no control center

Centralized HVAC

control source for heating and cooling, distributed to building through risers

Packaged Decentralized HVAC

may provide both heating and cooling, greater capacity

Split Decentralized HVAC

system locate only the evaporator and distribution fan in room and put condenser and compressor outside of building

Decentralized PTAC Advantages

less initial cost, building space conserved, easy installation requires only electrical connection, quickly replace units

PTAC

packaged terminal ac units

PTAC Disadvantages

higher maintenance costs, filters require frequent service, only apply to perimeter zones, noise levels vary considerably

Decentralized Packaged Units (Direct Expansion Unit)

roof mounted, often for meeting/public space

Centralized Components

AHU, fan coil, chiller, boiler, cooling tower, gas (fuel source)

Centralized Systems

forced air (residential), steam, water distribution for heating and cooling

2 Pipe Fan Coil

lower installation costs, provides either heat or cold

4 Pip Fan Coil

higher installation cost, carries both hot and cold, more expensive to operate. Fan coils are placed in rooms

AHU's

air handling units, connected to secondary water risers, distributes handled air through ducts

Refrigeration Components

expansion valve (restricts flow of refigerant), evaporator (liquid to vapor), compressor (vapor compressed to hot, high pressure gas), condenser (vapor to liquid)

Refrigeration Flow

expansion valve- low pressure liquid- evap coil (heat in)- low pressure gas- compressor- high pressure gas- condenser coil (heat out)- high pressure liquid- expansion valve. Evaporator is located in the refrigerated space

Cooling Tower

equipment that transfers waste heat into atmosphere

Cooling Fill Tower

forces hot condenser water to mix with air, promotes evaporation, which cools condenser water

Outside Air

Makes up 10-30% of HVAC system air supply

Maintenance Concerns

Safety, winterizing equipment, periodically balance HVAC, filters, coil cleaning

LEED Certification

no cfc's, minimum energy performance, minimum IAQ

Escalator

best way to move highest number of people a short distance

Escalator Safety

skirt panel w/ deflector brush to make people stay away from the edge, emergency stop button, comb plate for transition, anti-slide device

Escalator Maintenance

general cleaning, lube and inspection, safety controlled stop

Types of elevators

passenger, freight, dumbwaiter

Elevator Variations

hydraulic (7 stops, 100-150 fpm), geared traction (24 stops, 500 fpm), gearless traction (over 24 stops, 1800 fpm), general escalator (90-120 fpm)

Hydraulic Elevator

2-7 stops, don't use for anything past 5 stops b/c very slow, most common type, less expensive than traction, no cable, consumes 3x as much energy

Traction Elevator

requires more sf for high rise buildings, cable wraps around motorized sheave, machine room typically on top of building

Elevator Modernization

microprocessors in control equipment, peripheral equipment

Elevator In-House Review

doors, passenger satisfaction, performance, safety, fixtures, maintenance, starting and stopping, leveling, ride run times, performance

Elevator Sustainability

new drivers use ac current= more efficient and regenerative power generated upon stop

Situation

miconic id technology- no more buttons, keypad with smart tech, increased car speeds by 30%, ADA features.

Wall Functions

define space, sound, heat, fire, bearing loads

Snapping line

mark-off

Fiberglass Reinforced Panels

fire and sound and mold resistant and high impact flexbile

Wall Finishes

paint, vinyl, covering, wall paper, stone

Wall Vinyl

typically type 2 or 3 (determined by weight), type 3 for corridors b/c more durable and sound resistant

Plexture Wall Coverings

acrylic wall finish (decorative), low VOC, easily cleaned, damage resistant, high cost

Mosaic/Texture Wall Covering

Sheets of mosaic/material patterns available. Long lasting, design impact

Corner Guards

high traffic areas to protect walls

Decorative Elements

crown molding, chair rails, baseboard

Floor Finishes

stone, quarry tile, vinyl composite tile, rubber, carpet, wood

Thermal Tile

Easily replaced and slip resistant but easily damaged, porous, and high-cost

Epoxy Floor

combines epoxy with hardener, poured to become seamless floor

Carpet Fibers

Natural (wood, cotton), blend (most common in hotels in 80:20) synthetic: nylon (stain resistant), acrylic, olefin (outdoor carpets), polyester (difficult to clean), rayon

Nylon 6 v Nylon 6-6

6= infinitely recyclable whereas 6-6 can only be recycled once

Woven Carpet

heavy, firm, durable. But cut edges unravel and higher costs

Tufted Carpets

glued in place, less expensive and quickly produced but can be less durable

Broadloom Carpet

for big rooms, made with wide loom

Maintenance Corner

no vinyl on exterior walls, in high humidity consider perforated or mold resistant vinyl, corner guards, wood flooring in wet areas

VOC's

volatile organic compounds. wood products (resin, glue), stains, coatings and cleaners

Sick Building Syndrome

occupants experience illness/adverse reactions due to inadequate ventilation, chemical contaminants, biological contaminants.