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372 Cards in this Set

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Anterior Pituitary hormone that influences the activity of the adrenal cortex

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Thyroid hormone; secretion and function similar to those of thyroxine (T4)

Triiodothyronine (T3)

a reduction in the number of platelets circulating in the blood

Thrombocytopenia

Posterior Pituitary plus infundibulum; portion of the pituitary gland derived from the brain

Neurohypophysis

a hormone such as testosterone that controls male secondary sex characteristics

Androgen

Sex hormones, primarily androgens, secreted by the adrenal cortex

Gonadocorticoids

A hormone that regulates the secretory action of another endocrine organ

Tropic hormone (tropin)

The most abundant plasma protein

Albumin

A clot that develops and persists in an unbroken blood vessel

Thrombus

Agglutination and destruction of red blood cells following transfusion of incompatible blood

Transfusion reaction

Also called B lymphocytes; oversee humoral immunity; their descendants differentiate into antibody-producing plasma cells

B cells

Red blood cells

Erythrocytes

Gonad-stimulating hormones produced by the anterior pituitary

Gonadotropins

Bone marrow cell that gives rise to all the formed elements of blood; hemocytoblast

Hematopoietic stem cell

An enzyme, usually activated by a G protein, that converts ATP to the second messenger cyclic AMP

Adenylate cyclase

process of erythrocyte formation

Erythropoiesis

White blood cell whose granules stain purplish-black and nucleus purple with basic dye

Basophil

Ejection of an immature egg from the ovary

Ovulation

Iron-containing pigment that is essential to oxygen transport by hemoglobin

Heme

Adenohypophyseal hormone that stimulates the breasts to produce milk

Prolactin (PRL)

Rupture of erythrocytes

Hemolysis

cell fragment found in blood; involved in clotting

Platelet

Highly contagious viral disease; marked by excessive agranulocytes

Infectious mononucleosis

Anterior pituitary hormone that regulates secretion of thyroid hormones

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

male sex hormone produces by the testes; during puberty promotes virilization, and is necessary for normal sperm production

testosterone

clinical test that includes counts of all formed elements, a hematocrit, and measurements of erythrocyte size and hemoglobin content

Complete blood count (CBC)

the percentage of total blood volume occupied by erythrocytes

hematocrit

reduced oxygen-carrying ability of blood resulting from too few erythrocytes or abnormal hemoglobin

anemia

blood cell formation; hemopoiesis

hematopoiesis

the major hormone secreted by thyroid follicles; stimulates enzymes concerned with glucose oxidation

Thyroid hormone (TH)

body system that includes internal organs that secrete hormones

Endocrine system

oxygen-bound form of hemoglobin

oxyhemoglobin

enzyme released by the kidneys that raises blood pressure by initiating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism

Renin

disease caused by deficient insulin release or by insulin resistance, leading to inability of the body cells to use carbohydrates

Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

obstruction of a blood vessel by an embolus floating in the blood

Embolism

pertaining to the lungs

pulmonary

hormone partly responsible for preparing the uterus for the fertilized ovum

Progesterone

one of the largest of the body's endocrine glands; straddles the anterior trachea

Thyroid gland

a mixture in which the solute particles do not settle out readily. substance in the thyroid gland containing thyroglobulin protein

colloid

hormone released by fat cells that signals satiety

Leptin

temporary organ formed from both fetal and maternal tissues that provides nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus, carries away fetal metabolic wastes, and produces the hormones of pregnancy

Placenta

large single-nucleus white blood cell; agranular leukocyte

Monocyte

Glucocorticoid produced by the adrenal cortex

Cortisol (hydrocortisone)

disease characterized by passage of a large quantity of dilute urine plus intense thirst and dehydration caused by inadequate release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Diabetes Insipidus

Granular white blood cell whose granules take up an acid stain called eosin

Eosinophil

Anterior pituitary; the glandular part of the pituitary gland

Adenohypophysis

hormone that stimulates production of red blood cells

Erythropoietin (EPO)

state in which a greater than normal amount of insulin is required to maintain normal glucose blood levels

Insulin resistance

fatty acid metabolites; strong organic acids

ketones (ketone bodies)

diagnostic test to determine relative proportion of individual leukocyte types

Differential white blood cell count

Fibrous insoluble protein formed during blood clotting

Fibrin

Natural anticoagulant secreted into blood plasma

Heparin

refers to a group of cancerous conditions of white blood cells

Leukemia

hormone-producing glands located superior to the kidneys; each consists of medulla and cortex areas

Adrenal glands

passage of white blood cells through intact vessel walls into tissue

Diapedesis

An abnormally high number of erythrocytes

Polycythemia

most abundant type of white blood cell

Neutrophil

term used to describe hormones such as glucagon that elevate blood glucose level

Hyperglycemic

white blood cells; formed elements involved in body production that take part in inflammatory and immune responses

Leukocytes

collective term for the series of events that expel the fetus from the uterus

Labor

abnormally low white blood cell count

Leukopenia

immature erythrocyte

reticulocyte

an increase in the number of leukocytes (white blood cells); usually the result of a microbiological attack on the body

leukocytosis

the production of white blood cells

Leukopoiesis

diagnostic test to determine status of the body's hemostasis system

prothombin time

hormone that stimulates growth in general; produced in the anterior pituitary

Growth Hormone (GH)

A soluble blood protein that is converted to insoluble fibrin during blood clotting

Fibrinogen

Primary reproductive organ; i.e., the testis of the male or the ovary of the female

Gonad

hormones that stimulate female secondary sex characteristic; female sex hormones

estrogens

Amber-colored fluid that exudes from clotted blood as the clot shrinks; plasma without clotting factors

serum

iodine-containing hormone secreted by the thyroid gland; accelerated cellular metabolic rate in most body tissues

Thyroxine (T4)

condition resulting from underactive thyroid gland

Myxedema

stoppage of bleeding

Hemostasis

disorder resulting from hyperactive thyroid gland

Graves' Disease

hormone produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary; stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb more water, reducing urine volume

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

immediate response to blood vessel injury; results in constriction

Vascular spasm

substance produced by the stomach that is required for Vitamin B12 absorption

Intrinsic factor

A drug dose that is dramatically higher than normal levels of that substance in the body

Pharmacological dose

Lymphoid organ active in immune response; site of maturation of T lymphocytes

Thymus

steroid hormone released by the adrenal cortex

Corticosteroids

cellular portion of blood

formed elements

a chemical messenger that acts locally within the same tissue and is rapidly destroyed. Examples are prostaglandins and nitric oxide

Paracrine

steroid hormone of the adrenal cortex that regulates Na+ and K+ metabolism and fluid balance

Mineralocorticoid

process in which blood is transformed from a liquid to a gel; blood clotting

Coagulation

nerve bundles that run through the infundibulum and connect the posterior pituitary to the hypothalamus

hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract

platelet; cell fragment that participates in blood coagulation

thrombocyte

process that removes unneeded blood clots when healing has occured

fibrinolysis

neural part of pituitary gland; part of the neurohypophysis

posterior pituitary

a term loosely applied to several different hereditary bleeding disorders that exhibit similar signs and symptoms

hemophilia

enzyme that induces clotting by converting fibrinogen to fibrin

thrombin

the condition of relative uniformity of the body's internal environment

homeostasis

what are the two regulating systems of homeostasis

autoregulation and extrinsic regulation

In hypothermia, you start to shiver when you walk out in the cold, which regulating system of homeostasis would this be an example of?

Autoregulation

body cells, tissues, and organs quickly restore balance to the internal environment

autoregulation

nervous system and endocrine system working together or independently, provide the correct measures needed to balance to the internal environment

extrinsic regulation

in hypothermia, your heart speeds up, increasing blood flow, which regulating system of homeostasis would this be an example of?

extrinsic regulation

the number one feedback system of homeostasis

negative feedback

what are examples of negative feedback?

body temp, blood pressure, pH, ionic balance

which feedback system reverses the change in a controlled condition?

negative feedback

which feedback system strengthens or reinforces a change in a controlled condition

positive feedback

what are examples of positive feedback?

in childbirth, oxytocin is released from the posterior pituitary gland and sent to the uterine wall to cause dilation. Another example would be blood clotting

what are the three basic components of homeostasis

receptor, control center, and effector

what is the body structure that monitors changed in controlled condition

receptor

what sets the range of values within which a controlled condition should be maintained

control center

what evaluates the input received from receptors

control center

what generates output command to the effectors when controlled condition is out of set ranges

control center

what produces an effect that changes the controlled condition

effector

the nervous system performs _____ term crisis management

short

the endocrine system regulates ____ term ongoing metabolic activities of tissues and organs

long

what do endocrine cells release in order to alter metabolic activity of target cells

hormones

when chemical messengers are released between cells within one tissue

paracrine communication

chemicals that exert effects on the same cell that secretes them

autocrines

name 5 endocrine glands

Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal and Pineal

the endocrine gland that has both neural functions and releases hormones

hypothalamus

endocrine gland that acts as big brother to the nervous system, it does not trigger if the nervous system is doing its job

hypothalamus

two major types of hormone structures

amino acid and steroids

hormones that can be freely circulating or bound to transport proteins

steroids

if more than half of your blood is the water part (plasma), what is dissolved in the plasma?

amino acids

why cant steroids be dissolved in the plasma?

because steroids are lipids and lipids are hydrophobic

what in blood attached to oxygen causing it to turn red

hemoglobin

what are the five cellular changes in target cells

1) alter plasma membrane permeability


2) stimulate protein synthesis


3) activate/deactivate enzyme systems


4) induce secretory activity


5) stimulate mitosis

what binds to the plasma membrane opening channels

hormones

if a cell needs to do something, what needs to be activated

protein

receptors for hormones that are located in the cell membranes of target cells

second messengers

what type of hormones are considered to be second messengers

amino acids

which hormone action is used when hormones cross the cell membrane and bind to receptors in the cytoplasm or nucleus

direct gene activation

what type of hormones are considered to be direct gene activation hormones

steroids

blood levels of hormones are controlled by _____ feedback systems

homeostatic

which homeostatic feedback system is mostly used when controlling blood levels of hormones

negative feedback

what are the three stimuli that hormones are synthesized and released in response to?

1) Humoral


2) Neural


3) Hormonal

the secretion of hormones in direct response to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients

Humoral

nerve fibers stimulate release in which stimuli

Neural

which stimulus uses neurotransmitters

Neural

the release of hormones in response to hormones produced by other endocrine organs

Hormonal

a system that modifies the stimulation of endocrine glands and their negative feedback mechanisms

nervous

under stress, the body needs more glucose. the hypothalamus and sympathetic nervous system are activated to supply ample glucose. In this example, the nervous system is _____ normal endocrine controls

overriding

what id the two-lobed organ that secretes nine major hormones

Pituitary

what makes and secretes hormones that bind to membrane receptors and use cyclic AMP as a second messenger

Anterior Lobe

which lobe of the pituitary gland has a lot of fibers

posterior lobe

which lobe of the pituitary gland receives, stores, and releases hormones from the hypothalamus

posterior lobe

in which portal system does all blood reach the intended target cells before returning to the general circulation

hypophyseal portal system

what has a neural connection with the hypothalamus

posterior pituitary

nuclei of the hypothalamus synthesize _____ and _____.

antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin

what does the posterior pituitary do with ADH and Oxytocin

stores them

which endocrine gland releases EPO (Erythropoietin)

Kidney

EPO targets which cell?

Bone

which hormone makes red blood cells?

Erythropoietin

which endocrine gland releases TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone)

Anterior Pituitary

TSH targets which cell?

Thyroid

which hormone stimulates thyroid hormone production

TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone)

which endocrine gland releases ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormones)

Anterior Pituitary

ACTH targets which cell?

Adrenal

which hormone triggers release of endocrine hormones

ACTH

which endocrine gland releases FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)

Anterior Pituitary

FSH targets which cell

ovaries/testes

which hormone grows follicles and releases eggs in females and stimulates sperm production in males

FSH

which endocrine gland releases LH (Luteinizing hormone)

Anterior Pituitary

LH targets which cell

Ovaries/testes

which hormone stimulates ovulation/estrogen production in females and stimulates sperm production in males

LH

which endocrine gland releases PRL (Prolactin)

Anterior Pituitary

PRL targets which cell

Mammary gland

which hormone stimulates/sustains lactation

PRL

which endocrine gland releases GH (growth hormone)

Anterior Pituitary

GH targets which cell

All body cells

which hormone is responsible for mitosis

GH (Growth Hormone)

which endocrine gland releases ADH (Antidiuretic hormone)

Posterior Pituitary

ADH targets which cell?

Kidney

which hormone reabsorbs H2O

ADH

which endocrine gland releases Oxytocin

Posterior Pituitary

Oxytocin targets which cell?

Uterus

which hormone is responsible for labor contractions

Oxytocin

which endocrine gland releases TH (Thyroid Hormone)

Thyroid

TH targets which cell?

All body cells

which hormone is responsible for metabolism

TH

which endocrine gland releases Calcitonin

Thyroid Gland

Calcitonin targets which cell

Bone

which hormone decreases blood calcium levels?

Calcitonin

which endocrine gland releases PTH (parathyroid hormone)

Parathyroid Gland

PTH targets which cell?

Bone

which hormone increases blood calcium levels?

PTH

which endocrine gland releases Aldosterone

Adrenal Cortex

Aldosterone targets which cell

kidney

which hormone increases sodium blood levels

aldosterone

which endocrine gland releases cortisol?

adrenal cortex

cortisol targets which cell?

Liver

which hormone increases blood glucose levels in between meals

cortisol

which endocrine gland releases androgen?

adrenal cortex

androgen targets which cell?

sex glands

which hormone stimulates primary reproductive organs

androgen

Which endocrine gland releases Glucagon

Alpha cells of the pancreas

Glucagon targets which cell

Liver

which hormone increases blood glucose levels?

glucagon

which endocrine gland releases insulin?

Beta cells of the pancreas

insulin targets which cell?

all body cells

which hormone decreases blood glucose levels

insulin

which endocrine gland releases melatonin

pineal gland

melatonin targets which cell?

brain

which hormone is responsible for the day/night cycle

melatonin

which endocrine gland releases estrogen

ovaries

estrogen targets which cells?

primary reproductive organs

which hormone matures reproductive organs

estrogen

which endocrine gland releases testosterone

testes

testosterone targets which cell

primary reproductive organs

which hormone matures primary reproductive organs

testosterone

Hyposecretion means

too little

hypersecretion means

too much

excess cartilage growth and enlarged extremities

Acromegaly

advanced aging

Progeria

hyposecretion of TH in infancy

Cretinism

hyposecretion of GH during childhood/adulthood causes

Goiter

when skin becomes flush and clammy, blood pressure and heart rate increase, also associated with Graves' Disease

Hypersecretion oh TH

decreased weight, decreased blood pressure, and dehydration are all symptoms of what disease

Addison's Disease (Hyposecretion of Cortisol)

what causes increased blood glucose, depresses cartilage and bone formation, inhibits inflammation and immune system, and hypertension and adema

Hypersecretion of Cortisol (Cushing's syndrome)

which disease results from hyposecretion or hypoactivity of insulin

Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

what are three cardinal signs of DM

polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia

huge urine output

polyuria

excessive thirst

polydispsia

excessive hunger and food consumption

polyphagia

which type of DM is more common in adolescents?

Type I

90% of the cases of DM is which type of DM?

Type II

what is the difference between type I DM and Type II DM?

Type I has total lack of insulin activity and Type II has some insulin activity

what is the number one link to DM Type II

Obesity

Stress turns on the fight or flight by _____ epinephrine and cortisol

increasing

what are the two compositions of blood

plasma and formed elements

what makes up the formed elements in blood?

1) Red Blood Cells (RBCs)


2) White Blood Cells (WBCs)


3) Platelets

what does blood transport?

gases, nutrients, hormones, metabolic wastes

what does blood regulate

pH and ion composition of interstitial fluid and body temperature

what does blood restrict

fluid loos at injury sites

what does blood defend the body against

toxins and pathogens

in blood, what contains over 100 solutes, including: proteins, lactic acid, urea, creatine-muscles, organic nutrients, electrolytes, and respiratory gases?

plasma

more than 90% of plasma proteins are synthesized where?

Liver

what makes up the majority of plama

albumins

what are responsible for viscosity (resistance to flow) and osmotic pressure of blood?

Albumins

what includes immunoglobins which attack foreign proteins and pathogens

globulins

what is converted to fibrin during clotting

fibrinogen

volume of packed red cells

hematocrit

what is the shape of a RBC that provides a large surface to volume ration

Biconcave

the biconcave shape of RBC allows them to

stack, bend, and flex

what do RBCs lack?

organelles

molecules of what account for 97% of the proteins in RBC

hemoglobin

hemoglobin is a _____ protein, formed from two pairs of polypeptide subunits

globular

each subunit of hemoglobin contains a molecule of _____ which reversibly binds an _____ molecule

heme,oxygen

hemoglobin bound to oxygen is known as

oxyhemoglobin

how many oxygen are there per hemoglobin

4

what is the term for blood cell formation

hematopoiesis

where does hematopoiesis occur?

red bone marrow

what gives rise to all formed elements

hematocytoblasts

what is the formation of new red blood cells

erythropoeisis

erythropoeisis depends on adequate supplies of

iron, amino acids and B Vitamins

what makes up the hemi portion of hemoglobin

B Vitamins

the process of erythropoeisis speeds up with the presence of which hormone

EPO (Erythropoeitin)

Do RBCs have organelles

No

do RBCs have a nucleus

NO

RBC turnover is balanced through

production and destruction

too few RBCs leads to _____.

Hypoxia

to many RBCs causes increased blood _____.

Viscosity

RBCs typically degenerate in how many days

120

what are damaged or dead RBCs recycled by?

Phagocytes

Approximately how many new blood cells enter the circulation per second?

about 3 million

what is the erythrocyte disorder that is associated with decreased oxygen-carrying capacity

Anemia

what are two diseases that are associated with not having enough RBCs?

Hemorrhagic Anemia and Aplastic Anemia

which erythrocyte disorder is associated with prematurely ruptured RBCs

Hemolytic Anemia

which kind of anemia is the most common

iron-deficiency anemia

iron-deficiency anemia, pernicious anemia, and sickle-cell anemia/Thalassemia are all associated with what

hemoglobin

a disorder associated with excess RBCs

Polycythemia

white blood cells are called

Leukocytes

do WBCs have nuclei

yes

do WBCs have other organelles

yes

what do WBCs defend the body against

pathogens

which cells remove toxins, wastes, and abnormal or damaged cells

white blood cells

what is the term for amoeboid movement

margination

what is the term for when white blood cells are able to squeeze themselves through tiny holes and signal where the damage is coming from

positive chemotaxis

what is the lifespan of a white blood cell

0.5 to 9 days

what are the bodys bacteria slayers

Neutrophils

phagocytes that are attracted to foreign compounds that have reacted with antibodies

Eosinophils

what type of cells migrate to damaged tissue and release histamine and heparin

Basophil

what type of cells become macrophages

monocytes

what type of WBCd include T-cells, B cells, and N cells

lymphocytes

granulocytes and monocytes are produced by bone marrow _____ _____

stem cells

_____ is stimulated by interleukins and conoly-stimulating factors (CSFs)

Leukopiesis

macrphages and T cells are the most important sources of _____.

cytokines

cancerous conditions involving WBCs

Leukemia

what kind of leukemia involves myeloblasts

myelocytic leukemia

what kind of leukemia involves lymphocytes

lymphocytic leukemia

what kind of leukemia involves blast-type cells and primarily affects children

acute leukemia

what kind of leukemia is more prevalent in older people

chronic leukemia

plateletes are _____ cell fragments

flattened

platelets circulate for how many days before being removed by phagocytes

9-12 days

what are the functions of platelets

1) transporting chemicals important to clotting


2)form temp patch in walls of damaged blood vessels


3) contract after clot is formed

what releases platelets into circulating blood

megakaryocytes

the rate of platelet formation is stimulated by

thrombopoietin

what prevents the loss of blood through vessel walls

hemostasis

what are the three phases of hemostasis

1) vascular


2) platelet


3) coagulation

which phases of hemostasis occur immediately upon damage and at the same time

vascular phase and platelet phase

which phase of hemostasis occurs within seconds or minutes upon damage and has to occur after the platelet phase

coagulation phase

during the coagulation phase, factors released by platelets and endothelial cells interact with clotting factors to form a _____

cyst

what are the three pathways of coagulation

1) Extrinsic pathway


2) Intrinsic pathway


3) Common pathway

which pathway of coagulation involves when we take fibrinogen and convert it to fibrin

common pathway

what starts the common pathway of coagulation

prothombin activator

what is the final phase of healing

clot retraction and repair

what is the term for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulated rebuilding of blood vessel wasll

clot repair

what is the term for the stabilization of the clot by squeezing serum from the fibrin strands

clot retraction

what forms a connective tissue patch

fibroblasts

when a clot gradually dissolves through action of plasmin

fibrinolysis

plasmin is produced when which plasma protein is activated

plasminogen

heparin, coumadin, aspirin, dicumarol, t-PA, streptokinase, and urokinase are all examples of

anticoagulants

stastionary clot in unbroken vessel

Thrombus

moving obstruction

Embolism

emboli that become trapped in the lungs

pulmonary embolsim

a cerebral embolism may cause what

a stroke

emboli that become trapped in the heart wall can cause

heart attack

condition where the number of circulating platelets is deficient

thrombocytopenia

a result from a deficiency of Factor VIII

hemophilia

Blood types are determined by the presence or absence of surface _____ on RBCs

antigens (agglutinogens)

antibodies (agglutinins) are found in _____

plasma

_____ occur when antigens meet antibodies

cross-reaction

Holly has A-antigen Rh-antigen but no B-antigen, what is her blood type?

A+

Holly's blood type has no surface antigens, what is her blood type?

O-

Holly is Type B, what antibodies does she carry in her plasma?

Anti-A

Holly is Type B, does she carry anti-B on her RBC

No

Extrinsic pathway repairs what kind of tissue

connective tissue

Intrinsic pathway repairs what kind of tissue

epithelial tissue

common pathway repairs what

amitotic smooth muscle

When Rh+ antibodies of a sensitized Rh- mother cross the placenta and attack and destroy the RBCs of an Rh+ baby

Hemolytic disease of the newborn

Rh- mother becomes _____ when exposure to Rh+ blood causes her body to synthesize Rh+ antibodies

sensitized

a lab-made synthetic anti-Rh drug that can prevent the Rh- mother from becoming sensitized

RhoGAM

The function of hemoglobin is to


A) carry oxygen


B) protect the body against infectious agents


C) carry nutrients from the intestine to the body's cells


D) both A and C

A) carry oxygen

which of the following is/are true of steroid hormones?


A) steroid hormones are lipids


B) steroid hormones need a transport protein to circulate within blood


C) steroid hormones cause direct gene activation by its target cell


D) All of the above are true of steroid hormones

D) All of the above are true of steroid hormones

which of the following statements concerning RBCs is false?


A) RBCs are biconcave discs


B) RBCs lack mitochondria


C) RBCs have a large nucleus


D) RBCs can stack upon each other

C) RBCs have a large nucleus

Homeostatic regulation usually involves a(n) _____ that is sensitive to a particular stimulus and a(n) _____ whose activity has an effec on the same stimulus


A) receptor; effector


B) effector; receptor


C) receptor; control center


D) control center; effector

A) receptor; effector

Erythrocytes are formed from stem cells called


A) hemocytoblasts


B) megakaryoblasts


C) myeloblasts


D) lymphoblasts

A) hemocytoblasts

Which component of blood allows it to regulate body temperature


A) RBCs


B) WBCs


C) platelets


D) plasma

D) plasma

Coordinating centers in the hypothalamus regulate the activities of the endocrine system by all of the following except


A) autonomic neurons that directly control the endocrine cells of the adrenal medulla


B) a modified positive feedback loop involving the anterior pituitary gland


C) acting as an endocrine organ itself and releasing hormones


D) secreting inhibiting hormones that inhibit the production and release of hormones from the anterior pituitary gland

B) a modified positive feedback loop involving the anterior pituitary gland

after losing a fair amount of blood as a result of an accident, one would expect


A) hemorrhagic anemia


B) aplastic anemia


C) sickle-cell anemia


D) polycythemia

A) hemorrhagic anemia

the common pathway of coagulation begins with the


A) sticking of platelets to damaged tissue


B) activation of a proenzyme exposed to collagen


C) activation of a clotting factor that converts prothombin to thrombin


D) activation of a clotting factor that converts fibrinogen to fibrin

D) activation of a clotting factor that converts prothombin to thrombin

which phase of coagulation includes sticking of platelets to damaged tissue

platelet phase

During which part of the common pathway does activation of a proenzyme exposed to collagen occur

near the end

ACTH, FSH, GH, and LH are secreted by the anterior pituitary via _____ stimuli


A) hormonal


B) humoral


C) neural

A) hormonal

produced by follicle cells in the ovary when stimulated by FSH

estrogen

lowers calcium ion levels in blood

calcitonin

produced in the adrenal cortex and targets the liver and promote glucose metabolism in between meals

cortisol

secreted by adrenal gland to increase the sodium ion concentration of the blood

aldosterone

released by beta islet cells when blood glucose levels are too high

insulin

triggers the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland

TSH

secreted by the posterior pituitary gland to reabsorb water before it is lost in urine

ADH

increases the number of RBCs in circulation

EPO

increases mitotic activity of body cells

GH

pancreatic hormone that causes blood glucose levels to rise

Glucagon

If your blood type is O positive you can give to

O+, A+. B+. AB+

if your blood type is O positive you can receive from

O+, O-

If your blood type is A positive you can give to

A+, AB+

if your blood type is A positive you can receive from

A+, A-, O+, O-

if your blood type is B positive you can give to

B+, AB+

if your blood type is B positive you can receive from

B+, B-, O+, O-

if your blood type is AB positive you can give to

AB+ only

if your blood type is AB positive you can receive from

all blood types

if your blood type is O negative you can give to

all blood types

if your blood type is O negative you can receive from

O- only

if your blood type is A negative you can give to

A-, A+, AB-, AB+

if your blood type is A negative you can receive from

A-, O-

if your blood type is B negative you can give to

B-, B+, AB-, AB+

if your blood type is B negative you can receive from

B-, O-

if your blood type is AB negative you can give to

AB-, AB+

if your blood type is AB negative you can receive from

AB-, A-, B-, O-

What antibodies in plasma (agglutinins) does Group A have

Anti-B

what antigens in red blood cell (agglutinogens) does group A have

A antigen

what antibodies in plasma (agglutinins) does group B have

Anti-A

what antigens in red blood cell )agglutinogens) does group B hanve

B antigen

what antibodies in plasma (agglutinins) does group AB have

none

what antigens in red blood cell (agglutinogens) does group AB have

A and B antigens

what antibodies in plasma (agglutinins) does group O have

anti-A and anti-B

what antigens in red blood cell (agglutinogens) does group O have

none