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43 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Which of these statements about language development does research evidence suggest is false?


A.Parents’ verbal responsiveness influences the rate of infants’ language acquisition.
B.Infants under six months old can usually distinguish more phonemes than one-year-olds.

C.Effective grammar usage tends not to appear until about age 9 (after several years of formal schooling).
D.Noam Chomsky’s theory of language development fits well in the nativist tradition.

Effective grammar usage tends not to appear until about age 9 (after several years of formal schooling).

The foot-in-the-door technique of gaining compliance relies on the principle of ...

cognitive dissonance

Which of the following influences has not been suggested to contribute to secure attachment for children?


A.type of day care

B.number of sisters
C.sleeping arrangements
D.genetic factors

number of sisters

What environmental factor was highlighted in your text as correlated with greater adolescent promiscuity and earlier onset of puberty for girls?

Absence of a caring father at home.

In experiments described in your text, people who met initially on the Internet ______________________ than people who initially met face-to-face.

liked each other more

You receive a notice from city government summarizing decisions made regarding the upcoming renovation of a downtown shopping area. According to the elaboration likelihood model, in which of the following circumstances would you be most likely to read and think logically about the contents of the notice?



A.You like the mayor and, in general, the city's policies regarding growth.

B.The arguments supporting the decisions are from expert consultants hired by the city.


C.You work in a department store that is considering relocating downtown.

D.The arguments for the renovation are clear and very persuasive.


You work in a department store that is considering relocating downtown.

Research shows which of the following areas to be the one with the smallest difference between the interests or abilities of women and men?

investigative work

When subjects in Asch's conformity study wrote their answers down privately rather than announcing them publicly, the likelihood of agreement with the confederates' wrong answers was ...

reduced

Upon realizing that you have hurt or disappointed someone you truly care about, your emotional response will usually be one of _____, which encourages you to _____ the relationship.

guilt; repair

Cohen and Greene have identified the anterior cingulate as highly active during what kind of mental situations?

When rational and emotional motivations are in conflict.

What activity was shown [in a homework video] to increase the creation of new neurons in mouse brains?

running

What psychological principle was demonstrated by results of the 1967 study of college students' evaluations of the true attitudes of students who, either with or without free choice, wrote essays either favorable or unfavorable toward Fidel Castro's policies?

person bias

Which of the following is NOT one that 12-year-old children with autism perform relatively more poorly than normal 4-year-old children?


A.false-picture tests

B.prolonged eye contact
C.false-belief tests
D.repetitive actions

false-picture tests

According to Tim Salthouse, which of the following tends to increase across adulthood?


A.fluid intelligence

B.crystallized intelligence
C.mental speed
D.working memory capacity

crystallized intelligence

According to Asch’s classic studies, which of these conditions is sufficient to significantly reduce conformity in a group?

a single dissenter

Which of these theorists is most associated with the idea of children are like “little scientists” as they learn by acting on objects in the environment?

Piaget

Findings from the Milgram studies suggested that all of the following factors contributed to obedience on the part of the original research subjects EXCEPT the:


A.proximity of the experimenter to the subject ("teacher").

B.location of the experiment in a university laboratory.

C.physical attractiveness of the "learner."
D.distance of the "teacher" from the "learner."

physical attractiveness of the "learner"

Adolescents' difficulty in accurately recognizing others’ emotions is related to immaturity in which brain structure?

frontal lobe

The strange-situation test developed by Mary Ainsworth is used to assess ...

infant attachment

More than younger people, older people show better memory for ________ stimuli than for __________ stimuli.

positive; negative

People are more likely to decide on a risky plan of action when they are thinking about ...

what they have to lose

Which of the following types of parenting has been associated with the best outcomes for children according to Baumrind?

authoritative

Experiments with 1-month-olds have shown they will stare more at one of these pacifiers than the other, depending on which one they'd had in their mouth. These findings were revolutionary--especially relative to Piaget's beliefs--because they show that very young infants...

have mental representations even of objects they haven't seen

James Flynn’s studies of IQ scores around the world over the last 60 years has demonstrated that…

both crystallized and fluid intelligence have increased, but fluid more so

If there is high heritability for a trait within groups, heritability across groups


A.must be at least moderate but need not be high.
B.must be high.

C.can still be zero.
D.cannot be zero.

can still be zero

A 30 year-old person who a year ago suffered brain damage resulting in anterograde amnesia would probably have the most difficulty with which of these tasks?


A.recalling facts from a conversation with you 15 minutes earlier.

B.successfully completing word-stems for words studied 15 minutes earlier.
C.remembering the name of their first grade teacher.
D.learning how to solve a jigsaw puzzle.


successfully completing word-stems for words studied 15 minutes earlier.

According to Maslow's theory of a hierarchy of human needs, which of these is at the top?


A.

belongingness and love needs


B.

esteem needs



C.

safety needs


D.self-actualization needs
E.physiological needs

safety needs

Where did the pioneering psychologist Gordon Allport begin his work to clarify our perceptions of different personality traits?

a dictionary

The case of Genie, the girl who was abused and virtually deprived of language until age 13, provides evidence that

childhood is a critical period for the development of grammar

The term heritability refers to the proportion of:

the variability in some characteristic in a group that is due to genetic differences among them

Indicate the classic one word label for each of the "Big 5" personality traits

openness , conscientiousness , extroversion , agreeability , and neuroticism .

Define "group polarization," then name and briefly explain its two major causes

Group polarization is the tendency for the decision or stance of a group on some issue--when the group is imbalanced concerning the issue from the start--to become more extreme than the initial average of the members' attitudes. The two main causes are informational and normative social influences. Informational because people tend to hear more arguments from the people on the more weighted side, so they get a potentially skewed view of the facts; Normative because people want to get along, want to be perceived as good group members, so they have incentive not to be on the weak end of a group with a dominant attitude. So they are motivated, whether consciously or unconsciously, to move their opinion in the direction of the group and even to situate themselves comfortably above the middle.

Which "Big 5" personality trait has been found to correlate positively with intelligence?

openness?????

Name any two of Gottman's "Four Horses of the Apocalypse" that signal dysfunctional conflict resolution in a relationship.

-contempt


-criticism (of the person, not the situation)


-defensiveness


-stonewalling

A more descriptive name for the Pygmalion effect is the ____________________ effect.

self-fulfilling prophesy

The mental processes that operate to reduce one's consciousness of thoughts that would threaten one's self-esteem or in other ways provoke a strong sense of insecurity or anxiety are called _____________________ .

defense mechanisms

What difference in parenting behavior between professional class, working class, and unemployed parents did Nisbett et al. speculate may be a factor in this IQ relationship?

Professional class parents say the most words to their children daily and the unemployed class parents say the least amount of words to their children daily.

Professional: 6 encouragements - 1 reprimation
Working: 2 encouragements - 1 reprimation
Unemployed: 1 encouragement - 2 reprimation

Name and briefly explain the basic strategy that reduced conflict between the two groups of boys in Sherif's classic "Robbers Cave" study?

Introducing a goal that was desired by both groups and was best achieved if they worked together: a superordinate goal.

Vygotsky would have thought this nicely illustrates what he termed the _______________ , the span of accomplishment from what a child can do on her or his own to what can be accomplished with support from a more competent partner

Zone of proximal development

In Piagetian theory, the process by which experiences are incorporated into existing schemes is called ___________ and _____________ is the term for when schemes need to be expanded or revised.

assimilation; accomodation

Hagemann et al. (2008) studied the behavior of taekwondo referees by having them score the competitors shown in many short video-clips. What was their main finding with relevance to taekwondo competitions, and what is the larger implication with relevance to the performance judgments made by experts, generally?

They found that referees awarded more points to competitors wearing red protective gear compared to those wearing blue. This is evidence of an implicit bias; the referees were not aware of it. The larger implication is that we cannot assume that experts judging performance in a given field cannot be influenced by implicit biases that have nothing to do with quality of performance.

_____________ provides a mathematical means to identify an efficient, nonredundant set of personality traits based on correlations among larger sets of traits.

factor analysis

Noam Chomsky coined the term ___________________ to represent the innate mental mechanisms that predispose children to develop language.

LAD (language acquisition device)