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18 Cards in this Set

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Explain the introduction for LO & Deliberate Practise in DES essay.

Exceptional skill = expertise - involves deliberate practise. LO = idea that one can cultivate talent for joy. DP = particular type of practise.




Will show DP = necessary, and LO necessary only in competition, but merely sufficient otherwise.

What is Paragraph 1 of LO & DP in DES essay?

What is expertise?

Describe What is expertise? - Paragraph 1 of LO & DP in DES.

Dev. of expertise.




Schemas - experts have better organised schema.




More able to trigger appropriate schema for solutions to problems.




Masters in domain (Chi, Glaser & Farr).




Skill doesn't cross over - Ericsson & Charness.




Norman = characterisation of expertise - smooth, automaticity, mental degradation, effort - like driving.




Maguire = taxi drivers hippocampi.

What is Paragraph 2 of LO & DP in DES essay?

Bloom 3 types of practise.

Describe Bloom 3 types of practise - Paragraph 2 of LO & DP in DES essay.

Bloom (1981) - 3 types of practise.




1. Play (children's sociocognitive development)




2. Deliberate practise (individualised training by trainer)




3. Work




1 &3 = forms of deliberate practise.




Deliberate practise = most important!

What is Paragraph 3 of LO & DP in DES essay?

Knowledge vs. Deliberate practise.

Describe Knowledge vs. Deliberate Practise - Paragraph 3 of LO & DP in DES essay.

High level of K not possible without prior DP.


e.g. Chess grandmaster - De Groot.




Watching video? Still = training!




Greater knowledge = better performance of skill & thus development of exceptional skill (Voss, Spilich & Chiesi).




K = key aspect of expertise - happens because of DP.




Chase & Simon - expert knowledge organised differently - organisation methods, e.g. chunking.




So DP = higher order/sacrament. But how much?

What is Paragraph 4 of LO & DP in DES essay?

10 year rule.

Describe 10 year rule - Paragraph 4 of LO & DP in DES essay.

Simon & Chase - 10 year rule.




e.g. Crossman cigar roller.


Therefore 10 years = guide as to when improvements decrease.

What is Paragraph 5 of LO & DP in DES essay?

What is learned optimism?

Describe What is learned optimism? - Paragraph 5 of LO & DP in DES essay.

Seligman: positive psych, learned optimism - sufficient for dip in progress - i.e. for motivation.




Key idea in CBT.




3 positive things: Peterson - increases happiness & decreases symptoms of depression.




Seligman & Peterson: Character strengths for "good" person.

What is Paragraph 6 of LO & DP in DES essay?

Positive explanatory style: ABC (DE).

Describe Positive explanatory style: ABC (DE) - paragraph 6 of LO & DP in DES essay.

Positive explanatory style towards problems.




Adversity - trying to lose weight, didn't go to gym today.




Belief - pessimistic "I can't do anything"




Consequence - depressed for rest of the week.




Disputation - "Hold on a minute..."




Energisation - imagine worst case scenario & just keep going!




NHS Study (2014) efficacy of CBT for depression.




Relevant for DES in competition.

What is Paragraph 7 of LO & DP in DES essay?

Not the whole picture.

Describe Not the whole picture - Paragraph 7 of LO & DP in DES essay.

LO isn't the whole picture - e.g. coincidence, practise etc.




Despite Ericsson some people just better at things than others - Nigella.




LO depends on DES but DES doesn't depend on LO - it's merely helpful for DES!

What is Paragraph 8 of LO & DP in DES essay?

Personal account.

Describe Personal account - Paragraph 8 of LO & DP in DES essay.

LO in relation to DEP in being happy is useful for depression but after CBT runs out - difficult to self-guide & upkeep.




Therefore, not necessary factor. Need a constant support network.

Explain the conclusion of LO & DP in DES essay.

LO = sufficient, but DP = necessary for DES.