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160 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a persons genetic inheritance
what is seen as a result of genetic composition and environment
Ecological Model
development occurs within and individual and in coordination with environment:
Microsystem: immediate env. of child (home, school)
Meso system: interaction between env.
Exosystem: broader environmental aspects that effect child (parent's work, school board, etc.)
Macrosystem: cultural influences on env.
Chronosystem: env. throughout the lifespan

Rutter's indicators
severe marital discord
low SES
overcrowding/large family
mother psychopathology
parental criminality
placement outside of the home
resiliency factors for "at risk" babies
-few stressors after birth
-easy temrperament (socially responsive, good comm., consistent eating and sleeping)
-stable support from parent or other caregiver
critical vs. sensitive period
critical: specific, pre-determined period of time in which an organism is sensitive to certain stimuli that has impact on dvpt (it will either dvp during this period or not at all)

sensitive period: longer in duration, more flexible and are not as closely tied to chronological age (most experts agree that for humans, it is a sensitive period)
Prenatal Development Stages
Germinal (0-2 weeks post conception): ovum=zygote

Embryonic (3-8 weeks post conception)

Fetal (9 weeks - birth)
23 pairs (22 are autosomes, 1 is sex)

Males: XX
Females: XY
autosomal disorder
genetic disorder attached to a chromosome

Dominant gene disorders: Huntington's Disease

Resessive gene disorders: PKU, Tay Sachs, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease
Which of the following persons may be assigned the duty of security manager without being granted a waiver?
1. A line officer, a master chief
petty officer , and a civilian employee (GS-9)
2 . A line officer , a master chief petty officer, and a civilian employee (GS-13)
3. A line officer, a medical services corps officer, and a
civilian employee (GS-13)
4. A master chief petty officer, a cryptologic officer, and a
marine gunnery sergeant
3. A line officer, a medical services corps officer, and a
civilian employee (GS-13)
Down Syndrome
Autosomal disorder

Extra chromosome 21

Sx: MR, slowed growth and motor dvpt, distinct physical features, increased likelihood of Alz. leukemia and heart disease

- increases as mother and father's age increases
Klinefelter Syndrome
- occurs in males with XXY

- Sx: small penis & testes, develop breasts, limited libido, sterile, LD
Turner Syndrome
- females with only X

-Sx: short stature, droopy eyelids, webbed neck, retarded or absent secondary sex characteristics, cog deficits
Prader-Willi Syndrome
Caused by chromosomal deletion

Sx: MR, obese, OCD behaviors
Chromosomal translocation
When a chromosome attaches to another chromosome

cause of some cases of Down Syndrome
Chromosome Inversion
when a chromosome breaks in 2 spots, and re-attaches backwards.

Usually does not effect phenotype
Alcohol exposure in utero
FAS: caused by mother drinking heavily every day during pregnancy or binge drinking during early pregnancy

Sx: facial absnormalities, retarded growth, heart, kidney an dliver problems, visual/hearing probs, MR, LD, Bxl Probs

FAE: caused when mother consumes moderate amount of alcohol regularly

Sx: facial abnormalities, MR, milder severity of FAS sx

Sx are permanant, severity depends on extent of ETOH consumption, stage of pregnancy

Regions effected: corpus collosum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, basal ganglia, frontal lobes
Cocaine exposure in utero
-risk of spontaneous abortion and still birth, SID, low birthweight, small head

Sx: tremors, exaggerated startle response, high pitched cry, sleep/feeding difficulties, dvptl delays, irritable

cognitive and bxl problems seem to persist into early school years
Nicotine exposure in utero
-placental abnormalities that cause fetal death and still birth

-risk for SID, low birthweight, respiratory disease, emotional and social probs, cognitive deficits
Lead exposure in utero
low birthweight and MR
Rubella and pregnancy
if woman is infected (especially first trimester) infant at risk for heart defects, blindness, deafness, MR
Cytomegalovirus & pregnancy
herpes virus, passed through placenta

10%: low birthweight, rash, microencephaly, enlarged liver & spleen, retinal inflamation

20-30%: die perinatally

80-90%: develop neurological sx within first years of life
HIV/AIDS and pregnancy
35-60% transmission rate to newborn, reduced with medication taken during pregnancy and delivery

HIV+ babies: small for age, signs of virus in first years of life (susceptible to infection, large liver and spleen, swollen lymph nodes), delays in physical and cog dvpt

with medication, about 33% live to 8 years old or older
Mother malnutrition and pregnancy
miscarriage, stillbirth, low weight, supressed immune system, MR

Protein deficiency in 3rd trimester: reduced neurons and myelination in brain

Lack of Folic acid: spina bifida or neural tube defects
Premature birth
born before 37 weeks gestation

-linked to low SES, young mothers, malnutrition, drugs

3.3 pounds usually survive with appropriate medical care

usually "catch up" to peers by 2-3 years old

pre-term birth rates have increased (high among AA and highest increase in rate among whites)
small for gestational age
when born in <10% weight of peers

often more severe than pre-term

dvp slowly, risk for asphyxia during birth, respiratory disease, hypoglycemia, physical problems, LD, ADHD

highest rate since 60s (8%)
results of anoxia during birth
delayed motor and cog. dvpt, MR, cerebral palsy
exposure to Herpes during birth
death, brain damage, blindness

deliver through cesarian section
Brain development throughout life
Birth: 25% of total weight

2 years old: 80% due to increased neuron size and increased connections

age 16: full adult weight

age 30: brain begins to shrink due to lost neurons

age 60+: brain begins to atrophy, senile plaques, enlarged ventricles, slowed blood flow, decrease in some neurotransmitters. Brain does attempt to form new connections to compensate
cerebral cortex
responsible for higher-level cog functioning, language, spatial skills, complex motor activities

-nearly completely undeveloped at birth

-first months of life there is substantial dvpt and prefrontal cortex matures t/o childhood and adolescence.
early reflex in which the toes fan out when bottom of foot is tickled
touch a babies cheek and they will turn head in direction of that cheek
Moro (startle)
baby will fling arms and legs out when hear loud noise or feel loss of support
when hold a baby upright, they will make walking mvmt
measures of infant perception
habituation: when infants response to stimulus decrease when repeatedly presented

dishabituation: responsivity increases when stimulus changes
Vision in newborns
-least well developed
-6 months about equal to adult
-depth perception: kinetic, binocular, pictoral
-prefer high contrast pics
-2-5 days, prefer faces
-2 months, prefer mother's face
Hearing in newborns
-only slightly less sensitive than adults
-auditory localization: present at birth, disappears around 2-4 months, reappears and improves rest of first year
-3 months: prefer mother's voice
-days after birth: distinguish vowels
-2-3 months: distinguish consonant sounds
Taste and Smell in newborns
responsive to tastes and smells
-within hours of birth, they differentiate sweet and non-sweet (prefer sweet)
Pain in newborns
-exposure to early pain impacts later pain reactions
-no anesthesia during circumcision=increased pain response 6 months later
-premature infants have a reduced reactivity to pain later, even if no anesthesia
Where are steroids produced?
By the testes, ovaries, placenta, and adrenal cortex
developmental milestones 4-6 months old
4 mo: roll to back
5 mo: sit on lap, reach grasp
6 mo: sit alone, stand with help
teeth 5-9 mo
developmental milestones 7-9 months old
increasing coordination
8-9 mo: sit alone without help, crawling,
9-10: pull self up to standing
developmental milestones 10-12 months old
10-11 mo: stand alone, walk with help
12 mo: first step alone
developmental milestones 13-15 months old
13-14 mo: walk alone
15 mo: creeps up stairs, scribbles, uses cup
developmental milestones 16-24 months old
18 mo: run clumsily, walk up stairs, use spoon
24 mo: goes up and down stairs, kicks ball, turn page of book, 50% use toilet during day
developmental milestones 25-36 months old
30 mo: jump with both feet, hand/finger corrdiation
36 mo: ride trike, dress/undress, toilet trained
48 mo: stable preference for R or L
Gender differences in motor development
Middle childhood they become apparent
-girls: more physically mature, flexibility, balance, agility
boys: strength, gross-motor

early adolescence: greater difference - boys excel in motor areas, girls increased adipose tissue
physical maturation for girls in adolescence
Early: more negative consequences - poor self-concept, lower academics, sexually precocious, D&A, eating disorder

LATE: dissatisified
physical maturation for boys in adolescence
EARLY: beneficial for adjustment, popularity, superior athletic ability

LATE: childish, attention seeking bx, less confident
Visual changes in adulthood
40: inability to focus on close objects (Presbyopia)

65: visual changes interfere with daily life, decreased acuity, reduced depth perception, increased sensitivity to light, deficits in visual search, speed of processing
Hearing changes in adulthood
40: some problems with hearing

75-79: 50% have problems that interfere with daily functioning

decreased high-frequency sounds - difficult to understand human speech with conflicting sounds
Strength, Coordination, Reaction Time in adulthood
strength and endurance decline

less efficient sensorimotor control

increased reaction time
Effects of chronic illness in children
-effected by illness severity
-low functional impairment=better adjustment
-protective: high SES, 2 parent family, little disfiguration, healthy parental adjustment, developmentally appropriate information about their illness
Adolescent Drug & Alcohol Use rates
2002-2007 rates are stable

16% drink ETOH

9% smoked cigarettes (decline)

9% illicit drug use

6% marijuana

risks: male, low SES, physical/sexual abuse, low parental warmth/involvement

tobacco, ETOH, marijuana gateways
Sexual activity in late adulthood
57-85 report similar frequency as 18-59 year olds

physical health and lack of partner are primary for decrease in activity

men are more physically and emotionally satisfied with sex in late adulthood

43-61% said sex was equal or more satisfying than when they were in 40s

People actively construct higher levels of knowledge from env. and bio elements

Assimilation: incorporate new knowledge into existing cog schema (say a cat is a dog because 4 legs)

Accomodation: modify existing schema to incorporate new knowledge
Sensorimotor Stage of Development
0-2 years old
learn through sensory information


0-1mo: reflexive
1-4 mo: repeat pleasurable events (primary circular)
4-8 mo: reproduce pleasure with other people (secondary circular)
8-12 mo: combines secondary circular rxn into complex sequences (coordinated secondary)
12-18: deliberately varies action to discover consequence (tertiary circular)
18-24 mo: symbolic thought, form internal representations
Preoperational Stage of development
2-7 years
-symbolic function (language skills increase & mental imagery)

-MAGICAL THINKING: thinking about it will make it occur
- animism: attribute human characteristics to nonhuman
-egocentrism: can't separate own perspective from others
-irreversibility, centration, unable to conserve
Concrete Operational Stage of Development
7-11 years old

- depends on decentration and reversibility (#, then liquid, then length, then weight, then volume)

- capable of mental operations-logical rules of manipulating information
Formal Operational Stage of Development
11+ years old

-abstract thinking, hypothetico-deductive reasoning

-personal fable
-imaginary audience
Information Processing Development
improvements in memory are due to:
-increased capacity
-enhanced processing speed
-greater automticity

*focus on development within a specific domain (attn, memory, reasoning)
Neo-Piagetian Theory
combine information processing and Piaget
role of bio maturation and experience and propose that people actively construct their knowledge, but focus on development within specific domain
-unevenness across domains is normal
Sociocultural Theory

*role of SOCIAL learning and CULTURAL factors*
-interpersonal: interactions with others
-intrapersonal: internalization of what was learned

development facilitated by instruction within ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT (what they can do and what they can do with help) and SCAFFOLDING

-talking aloud is helpful for their organization (not egocentric like Piaget would say)

Theory underlies reciprocal teaching method in which students help other students read by mimicking the teachers questions
Early Recall & Recognition memory
3 mo: recognition memory up to 24 hours
6-12 mo: able to mim something they learned up to 2 weeks before
memory strategies in childhood
preschool: non-deliberate
early grade school: learn, but don' t generalize to other tasks
9-10 years old: rehearsal, organization, elaboration
teens: fine tune strategies and metacognition improves
episodic memory
autobiographical memory
infantile amnesia
inability to recall events prior to age 4
-possibly because prefrontal is not developed and is essential for memory
-possibly because language is not fully developed to encode for later retrieval
reminiscence bump
greater recall for events 10-30 years old
-large proportion of novel experiences
-encoding is most efficient during this period
-memories contribute to personal identity and are part of sense of self
Synchrony Effect
older adults: learning is best in the morning

young adults: learning is best in the evening

-adults tend to have decrease in multitasking, selective attn, inductive reasoning as they age
effects of age on memory
-recent-long term memory (secondary memory) and working memory are most affected with age

-episodic memory more effected than semantic or procedural

-meta-memory declines with age, moderated by the individual

-declines in working memory are related to decreased processing speed/efficiency

-adults are less likely to use effective encoding strategies and training can help
Nativist approach to language
-Language Acquisition device
-innate ability to have language
-children all pass through same stages and by 4-6 have basics of language, regardless of complexity
Behaviorist approach to language
language is acquired through imitation and reinforcement
Interactionist approach to language
bio + environment
-influence on social interactions
expansion (language)
parent adds to the child's statement but retains their word order "yes, mommy is going bye bye"
extension (language)
parent adds information to child's statement "yes, mommy is going to work now"
Semantic Bootstrapping
using the meaning of one word to infer the grammtical category
Syntactic Bootstrapping
using the grammar of the sentence to derive meaning from unfamiliar word
Surface structure of language vs. Deep structure
surface structure: organization of words

deep structure: meaning

speaking: take deep to surface
Listening: take surface to deep
smallest unit of sound that are understood in language
smallest unit of sound that conveys meaning (-ing, -un, -ed)
Stages of language development
echolalia & expressive jargon
holophrastic speech: one word with gestures
Telegraphic speech: 2+ words for a phrase
Vocabulary development
6-8 weeks: cooing
4 mo: babbling: repetition of sound
14 mo: babbling is lang. specific
9 mo: echolalia, imitate adults
10mo: first words - nouns
18-24 mo: telegraphic speech
18 mo: rapid increase in vocab 30-36 mo: vocab = 1000 words
2.5-5: increased sentence complexity (+50 words monthly)
applies a word too narrowly
applies word too broadly
gender and language use
boys: establish dominance, gain attn, give orders, talk at longer intervals, interrupt more frequently

girls: support others and show attentiveness, ask questions and give tag questions
Bilingual education
bilingual children do well and may be better than monolingual for mental complexity, flexibility, reasoning, metalinguistic awareness - evens out in adolescence
Code switching
-used to express self, establish rapport, more effective way to express attitude
behavioral inhibition
a biological component to temperament, stable trait

behavioral inhibition in early childhood: less active and less positive social relationships in adulthood
Thomas & Chess 9 temperament qualities
activity level
threshold of responsiveness
intensity of reaction
quality of mood
Goodness of Fit model
temperament is not as important as the match between parent and child
Oral Stage
0-1 year
focus on sensation and stimulation, weaning is primary task

fixation: dependence, passivity, gullibility, sarcasm, orally-focused habits
Anal Stage
1-3 years
task is to control bodily waste
fixation: retentive (stingy, selfish, OCD), expulsive (cruel, destructive, messy)
Phallic Stage
3-6 years
task is to resolve Oedipal conflict, view same-sex parent as rival

fixation: phallic character, sexual exploitation
Latent Stage
libidinal energy is diffuse, develop social skills (not sexual gratification)
Genital Stage

libido in genitals, success is when sexual desire is combined with affection for mature relationships
Erikson's focus of psychosocial devleopment
each stage has a "crisis"

greater emphasis on ego than id

assumes people are rational and behavior due to ego fxn

develop throughout lifespan
Basic Trust v. Basic Mistrust

develop positive relationship with caregiver, trust and optimism
Autonomy v. shame and doubt

autonomy through positive interactions with parents
initiative vs. guilt
early childhood

favorable relationship with family results in ability to set goals and carry out plans without infringing on others
Industry vs. inferiority
school age

influences are neighborhood and school

master certain social and academic skills
identity vs. role confusion

peers are dominant influence

positive outcome results in personal identity and focus for future
Intimacy vs. isolation
young adult

establish intimate bonds of friendship and love

if not established, self-absorption, isolation result
generativity vs. stagnation
middle adult

people you live and work with are most important

commitment to the well-being of future generations
ego integrity vs. despair
maturation/old age

development of wisdom, sense of integrity requires coming to terms with limitations and mortality
Season's of a Man's life

17-22 Early Adult Transition: initial foundation for life as an adult, independence, for THE DREAM

28-33 Age 30 Transition: realization that life structure in 20s is inadequate, settle down

40-45: Mid-Life Transition: stress and reorganization, deflation of the dream, "time since birth" to "time left to live"

-- studies not 100% supportive of this theory--
Authoritarian parenting
high demandingness
low responsivity
results: irritable, aggressive, mistrusting, dependent, little sense of responsibility, low academics
Authoritative parenting
high demandingness, high responsivity

results: assertive, socially responsible, achievement-oriented, high self-esteem (only parenting style with (+) outcome)
Permissive parenting
low in demandingness, high in warmth

results: immature, impulsive, self-centered, low achievement, low independence
Rejecting-Neglecting Parenting
low in responsivity and demandingness

results: low self-esteem, poor self-control, impulsive, moody, aggressive - delinquency

parents are usually hostile toward children, limited supervision, inconsistent & harsh punishments
moderators to parenting style
-child's temperament (i.e. authoritative parenting more predictive of social responsibility for anxious toddlers)

-culture/ethnicity (Asian American do well with authoritatiran style, Hispanic and Af. Am do poorly academically even with authoritative parents, possibly because little peer support)
Birth Order Effects
first born: more rapid lang. skills, higher grades, higher IQ scores, more achievement oriented and socially responsible.

later borns: less cautious, better relationships, more confident in social settings

large family - the smaller the gap between children the lower the child's achievement level
Maternal Depression on Child Dvlpt.
-increases child's risk for emotional and bxl problems (depends on child's genetics, and nature of mother's sx)

-noticeable sx in children by 3 months

-toddlers demonstrate passive noncompliance, higher aggressive bx, poor academics (cog-linguistics), insecure attachment
development of self-awareness
physical self-recognition: 18 months - notice self in pictures and mirrors

self-description: 19-30 months, use evaluative terms and neutral terms (good girl, brown hair)

2-6 years: concrete descriptions of self

6-10 years: self-description refers to competencies

10-12 years: describe self in terms of personality traits

adolescents: more abstract descriptions (inner thoughts and feelings)
Kohlber's Cognitive Development theory of gender identity
age 2-3 child knows they are boy or girl (IDENTITY)

STABILITY: child realizes their gender does not change

CONSTANCY: age 6-7 child realizes their gender is the same across settings
Bem's theory of gender identity
combination of social learning and cognitive development

child develops schemas of genders based on sociocultural experiences
Social Learning theory of gender identity
children learn gender-specific behaviors as a result of rewards and punishments - model and imitate

-supported by research indicating parents gendered stereotypes that are present immediately after birth
gender identity and self-esteem
gender-role identity had more influence than biological sex on self-esteem

the more masculine, the higher the self-esteem
racial awareness development
-some researchers say as early as 6 months children recognize difference

3-4 years: label people in terms of racial group

3-6: white children increase same-race peer interaction and black children decrease same-race peer interaction - indicating a preference for white (v. black) which is interpreted as a negative self-image for blacks

10 years: understand social connotations of race
Adolescent identity crisis

-achieve a coherent identity
Adolescent Identity statuses

Identity diffusion: no crisis yet, not committed to identity

Identity foreclosure: haven't experienced crisis, but adopt identity others want for them

identity moratorium: experience crisis, explore alternatives, highly confusing, discontent, rebellion

identity achievement: resolved crisis, committed to identity "identity achieved"
Relational Crisis
-for girls 11-12, they feel increase pressure to fit the "good woman" stereotype and learn that women's opinions are not valued "loss of voice" and they may disconnect from self to please others...help girls maintain healthy resistance to disconnection
Personality changes throughout adulthood
-most change occurs in early 20s

-agreeableness and conscientiousness increase over lifespan

-openness to experience, social vitality (extroversion) decrease after 55
Children's understanding of death
3-4 years: understand that it's irreversible, but dead person still has capacities of living person

5-9 years: know death is universal and irreversible, but personify it

10+: understand that death is biological process and not due to outside force

TV has lowered the age of understanding due to increased exposure - most 5 year olds have accurate description of death
Stages of Grief


- don't necessarily occur in this order
Harlow's Rhesus Monkey Study
-monkeys attached to the soft/cuddly monkey even if she didn't provide food (support for learning theory of attachment) - CONTACT COMFORT
ethological theory of attachment
-humans and animals have a biological tendency to form attachments to maintain life and get food

IMPRINTING: non-human animals attach to the first thing that moves (geese)
Bowlby's theory of attachment
-human are born with innate predisposition to increase likelihood of attaching (crying, smiling, vocalizing and adults are programmed to respond

1: preattachment
2: attachment in the making
3: clear-cut attachment
4: formation of reciprocal relationships

INTERNAL WORKING MODEL: child develops mental representation of relationships which influences future relationships
Characteristics of secure attachment
-baby explores room, mild upset, actively seeks her upon return

-mothers are sensitive and responsive

-curious and less dependent at 4-5 years

-as adults, high self-esteem, strong personal identity
characteristics of insecure (anxious)/ambivalent attachment
-cling and resist mother, very disturbed when alone, ambivalent upon return

-mothers moody and inconsistent
characteristics of insecure (anxious)/avoidant attachment
-minimal interaction, little distress, avoid upon return

-mother impatient, unresponsive or too stimulating
characteristics of disorganized/disoriented attachment
fear caregiver, dazed confused,

-80% have been physically abused

-risk for agg. bx in school
separation from mother as young child
0-3 months: minimal effect

9 months+: moderate to extreme reactions, feeding/sleeping probs, increased anxiety, may reject new mother

anaclitic depression: dvptl delays, unresponsive, withdrawal

late-adoptees: higher rates of emotional probs, bxl probs

-able to dvp close bond if adopted by 6
parents attachment and the attachment of their children
autonomous: coherent description of childhood and relationship - children are secure

dismissing: provide (+) description of childhood, but not true - children are avoidant

preoccupied: very angry or confused when discussing childhood - children are resistant/ambivalent
Emotions in early childhood
after birth: primary emotions (interest, sadness, disgust, distress), emotional contagion

3 months: imitate others emotions

6-8 months: anger, joy, surprise, fear

2 years: self-conscious emotions

18-24 months: outward signs of jealousy, empathy, embarrassment

30-36 months: shame, guilt, pride
two components: cognitive and affective, language and cog dvpt and early experiences

parents should model and provide reason for consequences

girls are higher

empathy training: ID own feelings and feeling sof others, recognize similarities and respond positively to others
-training effective for people with low empathy scores
coercive family interaction model

1: children learn aggressive bx from their parents
2: over time agg. parent-child interactions escalate

-parents are likely to use coercive discipline
-child has difficult temperament
-helps to teach parents mgmt skills and therapy to cope with stress better
social-cognitive factors of aggression
agg. children are different from non-agg. children in that
1: they have poor self-efficacy (easy to perform agg, hard to refrain from agg bx)
2: belief outcome of their bx is followed by (+) outcome
3: little remorse for agg bx
4: agg. children tend to misinterpret ambiguous bx for hostile bx
gender and aggression
boys are more aggressive than females

girls show more relational aggression (harm or exert control over peers through withdrawal of friendship or acceptance)
reducing aggression
model and reinforce (+) bx

teach that agg. hurts others and causes unhappiness, agg. doesn't solve problems, successful resolution with other methods

teach empathy
Piaget's stages of moral development
Premoral, 0-6 years old: little to no concern about rules

Heteronomous (morality of constraint): 7-10 years: rules are set by authority and are unalterable

Autonomous morality (morality of cooperation): rules are arbitrary and alterable
Preconventional morality

punishment/obedience: good/bad depends on consequences
instrumental hedonism: bx based on obtaining rewards and avoiding punishment
Conventional morality
good boy/good girl: bx to be liked by others

law and order: bx based on rules and laws est. by authorities
Postconventional morality


Morality of contract, ind. rights, democratically accepted laws: act in consistency with democratic laws

morality of ind. principles and conscience: right/wrong is determined by self-chosen ethical principles
Gilligan's Theory of moral development
-more concern about justice and individual rights

1: orientatin of ind. survival (what's best for self)
Transition 1: from selfishness to responsibility
2: goodness as self-sacrifice (sacrifice for others)
transition 2: from goodness to truth (coordinate responsibilities for self and others)
3: morality of nonviolence (avoid harm to self and others)

--research is divided on moral dvpt differences between males and females
Predictors of divorce
-marry young
-low educational level
-no religious affiliation
-mixed-ethnic relationship
-come from single-parent home
-were raped
-child prior to marriage
-cohabitated prior to marriage

emotinoally volatile attack-defend pattern: predictive of early divorce, escalating negativity (criticism, defensiveness, contempt, stonewalling)

emotionally inexpressive patterns: predictive of later divorce (suppress all emotions)
effects of divorce on parenting
diminished capacity to parent - socially isolated, uncommunicative, lonely , decline in income, less warm to children, authoritarian parenting

noncustodial fathers: overly permissive, indulgent, visits decline after first few months
Effects of divorce on children
-preschoolers: initially more problems, better off long-term

6-8 year olds: painful memories as adults and fear unsuccessful marriages

-boys more adversely affected and recover more slowly, but females have sleeper effect
Custody arrangements post divorce
same-sex parent: do better than if living with opposite-sex parent, but other studies show boys and girls living with father had poorer adjustment

better adjustment if frequent, reliable contact with noncustodial

worse if contact is highly conflictual
remarriage & stepparents
stepparent families: children worse-off than bio families, but minimal once SES, hx and preexisting problems accounted for

-stepfathers: more distant, authoritative style is best, best outcome with step-son

remarriage around 9 years old was most problematic
effects of maternal employment
benefits outweigh the costs
(+): more egalitarian view, (+) view of femininity, high self-esteem in daughters, independence, increased career goals

(-): for boys if combined with less supervision and monitoring

less likely to be (-) if both parents are (+) about it
Gay/Lesbian Parent
nature of relationship more important than sexual orientation

-increased parenting awareness
-development similar between single gay parent and single hetero parent
sibling relationship patterns
young: prosocial, play-oriented

middle: paradoxical, close/conflict, cooperate/competative

teens: less time together, less emotionally intense, more distant

if close in childhood, closer in old age, if poor relationship as child, more hostile as adult
rejected vs. neglected children
rejected children: aggressive or withdrawn - outcome is worse, even if moved to different school

neglected children: not disruptive, prefer to be alone, not unhappy
socio-emotional selectivity theory
goals: acquire knowledge and regulate emotion

if time is percieved as unlimited: pursue future-oriented, knowledge-based goals

time perceived as limited: present-oriented, emotion-based goals
Peer pressure for teens
generally stronger for prosocial behavior than negative behavior

strongest at 14-15

peers have more influence on everyday issues, but parents have influence on basic beliefs, career and educational goals
marital satisfaction
high satisfaction linked to: similar age, SES, education, religion, marrying after 23, dating for 6 months before marriage, waiting to have children 1 year post marriage

greatest dissatisfaction is during middle years

satisfaction either declines steadily over time or initially declines and then stabilizes
self-fulfilling prophecy (Rosenthal effect)
teacher's expectations effect performance based on subtle differences in their behaviors
gender and teacher feedback
boys: criticized for decorum, failure to be neat, inattention. Praised for: intelligence, task-related bx

girls: criticized for inability. Praised for cooperation and dependent behaviors
television & children
increases agg. bx, reinforces traditional sex roles

educational shows, increase vocab, cog skills, prosocial bx

lots of TV=poor academics, less family interactions

3-4 y/o: tv characters can see into home

7 y/o:tv characters are actors (not real)