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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Describe Piaget's sensorimotor stage
Birth to 2

Learning thru senses and motor interaction

object permanence
deferred imitation
Describe Piaget's Preoperational stage
2 to 7 yrs

Major increase in symbolic thought
Strides in language
Substitute pretend play (block as truck)
Sociodramatic play (playing house)

magical thinking
unable to understand conservation
Describe Piaget's Concrete Operational stage
7 to 12 yrs

Transitivity (sorting)
Hierarchical classification
Describe Piaget's Formal Operational stage *
12 on

Abstract reasoning

imaginary audience - always 'on stage'
personal fable - unique and indestructible
Identify Piaget's developmental stages, including their range of applicability
Sensorimotor - birth to 2
Preoperational - 2 to 7
Concrete Operational - 7 to 12
Formal Operational - 12 on
Describe the systems in Bronfenbrenner's ecological model
Microsystem - child's immediate setting including:
family, caregivers, classmates, teachers

Mesosystem - interconnections among elements of the microsystem

Exosystem - indirect influences on the child, eg
parents' jobs, friends
the community

Macrosystem - cultural context
Describe fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
Largely irreversible:
growth retardation
mental retardation - leading cause in US
When would a child develop an 'internalized conscience' aka superego
As a result of the successful resolution of the Oedipal / phallic stage (3-6 yrs)
How do the Ainsworth categories translate into adulthood? *
Secure children
secure or autonomous adults

Anxious-avoidant children
dismissing adults; devalue attachment relationships; vaguely claim good childhoods

Anxious ambivalent children
preoccupied adults

Disorganized children
disorganized or unresolved adults
Compare Freudian to Eriksonian stages
Birth to 1
F: oral
E: trust vs mistrust

F: anal
E: autonomy vs shame / doubt

F: phallic/Oedipal
E: initiative vs guilt

F: latency
E: industry vs inferiority

F: genital
adolesence: identity vs confusion
young adult: intimacy vs isolation
middle adult: generativity vs stagnation
old age: ego integrity vs despair
Compare Freud and Piaget's stages
P: birth - 2; sensorimotor
F: oral; beginning of anal at 1

P: 2-7; preoperational
F: end of anal at 3
3-6 phallic; 6 beginning of latency

P: 7-12; concrete operational
F: latency (to puberty)

P: 12 on; formal operational
F: post-puberty; genital
Describe stages of language development *
1-2 mo cooing
4-6 mo babbling
10-16 mo first words
12-18 mo holographic - 1 word sentences
18-24 mo telegraphic speech - 2 word sentences
30-36 mo rapid vocabulary growth
3-6 yrs development of complex grammar

at the end of yr 1, discovery that certain sounds can get their parents' attention and help
Def: centration
Tendency to focus on one detail of a situation to the neglect of other important features

from Piaget
Describe Ainsworth's attachment styles *
child: exploratory
mother: emotionally sensitive and responsive
on return: seek physical contact

Anxious / avoidant
child: uninterested in environment
mother: either impatient and nonresponsive or overly responsive
on leaving: show little distress
on return: avoid contact

Anxious / resistant
child: anxious in the presence of their mother
mother: inconsistent
on return: more upset; ambivalent; resist contact

child: dazed, confused, apprehensive
mother: abusive
on return: mixed avoidance, resistance and proximity seeking
Trajectory of step-father relationship re boys and girls
Relationship with boys improves
With girls not
Def: fluid intelligence
Active processing of information

culture free

affected by loss of neurons and depletion of neurotransmitters
Def: crystalized intelligence
Knowledge acquired through education and experience

Relatively unaffected by brain function
Describe the relationship between fluid and crystalized intelligence
Crystalized develops through use of fluid intelligence

They are highly correlated
What does the Digit Span subtest of the WISC measure?
Auditory memory

(it is a verbal subtest)
What parenting style is associated with delinquency?
Lax supervision
Non-enforcement of rules
According to Gilligan, what fosters healthy identity development in early adolescence for girls?
Staying connected to the self and others
Risk factors for poor academic performance following a divorce
Prerequisites for cognitve development (Piaget)
Biological maturation
Environmental stimulation
Def: Client-centered case consultation
Working with therapists to develop a plan to be more effective with their clients
Def: Consultee-centered case consultation
Working with therapists on their own problems, eg lack of skill, counter-transference
Predictors of child psychopathology
Maternal psychopathology
Severe marital discord
Large family size
Parental criminality
Placement of children outside the home
Def: equilibration (Piaget)
State of cognitive balance

Need for equilibration motivates assimilation and accomodation
Describe fetal alcohol effects (in contrast to FAS)
Symptoms less severe but are also largely irreversible
Self reported sex problems in elderly women
Decreased lubrication
Thinning of the vaginal walls
Inadequate stimulation

But not orgasmic dysfunction
Def: scaffolding (Vgotsky)
Children receiving support from parents, teachers and more experienced others
Def: inductive reasoning
Reasoning from a particular fact the general rule
Def: deductive reasoning
Reasoning from the general law to a particular case
Def: maturation
Genetically determined patterns of development - eg learning to walk
Def: canalization
Characteristics resistent to environmental forces

Sensorimotor development is highly canalized; intelligence and personality less so.
Def: secular trends
Timing differences in physical development among cohorts

Eg onset of menstruation
Transmission of HIV from mother to infant
Risk reduced by AZT to mother in last 2 trimesters and to infant in first 6 weeks

Transmission rate in US is 25%

Also contagious thru breast milk
When are separation and stranger anxiety at their strongest?
Around 18 mo
According to Thomas and Chess healthy development results from...?
Fit between the child's temperament and parents' behavior
When do stranger and separation anxiety begin?
Separation anxiety begins around 6 months

Stranger anxiety begins between 8 and 10 months
Age at which social inhibition can first be detected
2-4 mo

eg infants responding negatively to novel stimuli
Characteristics of pre-adolescent sibling relationships
Conflict and closeness
Aspects of memory most affected by normal aging
encoding strategies
secondary memory (recent longterm)
working memory
episodic memory

unaffected: implicit memory
Effect of maternal employment on children's academic achievement
Generally good, unless the mother stays at home but wishes she were working, in which case it has a detrimental effect
Manifestations of depression in childhood
In very young children, psychomotor agitation looks like tantrums and irritability

In older children and adolescents, it looks like aggression
Desc: referential style of language acquisition
Rapid vocabulary growth with clear spurts of acquisition early on

Emphasis on content words and object names
Desc: expressive style of language acquisition
Early words are linked to social relationships and mostly pronouns and socially oriented words

Less clear than a referential style

Likely to be boys or later born children
Effects of spanking and other forms of physical punishment
Facilitates aggressive behavior in both boys and girls
Kohlberg's 6 stages of moral development *
1 Obedience and punishment
2 Individualism,
instrumentalism and exchange

Conventional - middle childhood
3 "Good boy/girl"
4 Law and Order

5 Social Contract
6 Principled Conscience
Characteristics of aggressive youth
More likely to believe that aggressive behavior has positive outcomes

Have a smaller social behavior repertoire

Likely to interpret peer behavior as hostile

Likely to focus on most recent (as opposed to first) event in a social interaction
Techniques for assessing infant perceptual ability
Heart rate at any age
Sucking between 1 and 4 mo
Reaching after 12 wks
Head turning after 5.5 mo