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354 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the atmosphere composed of?
The atmosphere is composed of 78.1% N, 20.9% O, and about 1% of other gases such as argon, carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor.
What is pollution directly related to?
Air pollution is directly related to the number of people living in an area and the kinds of activities in which they are involved.
There are five major types of materials that are released directly into the atmosphere in unmodified forms in sufficient quantities to pose a health risk. What are they called?
These are called primary air pollutants.
What are the five primary air pollutants?
–Carbon monoxide
–Volatile organic compounds (hydrocarbons)
–Particulate matter
–Sulfur dioxide
–Oxides of nitrogen
How are secondary pollutants formed?
they are formed when primary pollutants interact with sunlight and other gases in the atmosphere
What are Criteria air pollutants?
pollutants for which specific air quality standards have been set.
What are the six Criteria Air Pollutants?
1.Nitrogen dioxides (NO2or NOx)
2.Ozone (O3)
3.Sulfur dioxide (SO2)
4.Particulate matter (PM)
5.Carbon monoxide (CO)
6.Lead (Pb)
How is Carbon Monoxide is produced?
Carbon monoxide is produced when organic materials are burned with insufficient oxygen.
What is the single largest source of Carbon Monoxide?
The single largest source is the automobile
How is Carbon Monoxide harmful to the body?
Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin in blood and makes the hemoglobin less able to carry oxygen.

It is most dangerous in enclosed spaces; several hours of exposure to air containing only 0.001% CO can cause death
Name several characteristics of Carbon Monoxide?
-Colorless, odorless
-Incomplete combustion
-Binds strongly with hemoglobin
-Headaches, dizziness, and death
-35 ppb per hour (0.001% CO can cause death)
-Cigarette smoking
-May also contribute to global climate change
What does particulate matter consist of?
Particulate matter consists of minute pieces of solid materials (< 10 microns) and liquid droplets dispersed into the atmosphere.

Particulates can accumulate in lungs and interfere with the ability of lungs to exchange gases.
What is a compound of sulfur and oxygen produced when sulfur-containing fossil fuels are burned?
Sulfur dioxide (SO2)
What are the health effects of Sulfur Dioxide?
Health Effects: constrict airways, change respiratory and pulse rates, respiratory diseases
What are the environmental effects of Sulfur Dioxide?
Acid Rain/Deposition
What is Acid Deposition?
The accumulation of potential acid-forming particles on a surface.
When does the Acid Deposition form?
When dry particles are deposited, an acid does not actually form until these materials mix with water.
What are all sources of acid-forming particles commonly referred to?
acid rain
What are Particulates and sulfur dioxide associated with?
electric power plants
Is acid rain a worldwide problem?
What are some harmful effects of acid rain?
–Property and structural damage
•Limestone degradation
–Damage to forests
•Acidic soil results in reduced nutrient absorption
–Lake acidification causes food chain disruption
Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are formed when fossil fuels are burned. True or False
Can Lead enter the body through breathing airborne particles or by consuming lead deposited on surfaces?
What harmful effects does lead have on humans?
Lead accumulates in the body and can cause mental retardation and kidney damage.
What WAS the primary source of lead?
-Leaded gasoline was primary source.
-Currently, over 80% of gasoline sold in the world is unleaded. Those still using it plan to phase it out.
-In the U.S. lead emissions peaked at about 258,000 tons per year. In 2007 they were about 1300 tons per year, a reduction of 99.5%, meeting EPA standards in the U.S.
What are hydrocarbons?
They are a group of organic compounds consisting of carbon and hydrogen.

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) readily evaporate and become pollutants in the air.
VOCs react with many other pollutants to form secondary air pollutants found in photochemical smog.

True or false?
Are they toxic?

Some VOCs are toxic (carcinogens) and are known as hazardous air pollutants.
What is Ozone?
Ozone (O3)is a molecule of three oxygen atoms bonded to one another.
–It is an extremely reactive secondary pollutant that can:
•Cause permanent lung damage
•Irritate respiratory tissues
•Damage plants
•Reduce agricultural yields
What conditions need to be present in a city for photochemical smog to develop?
Cities with warm climates and lots of sunlight are more prone to develop photochemical smog.
–Warm temperatures and sunlight are needed.
–Smog is more likely to be a problem in the summer with higher temperatures and longer days.
–Cities adjacent to mountains or in valleys tend to have trouble with photochemical smog because pollutants are trapped by thermal inversions.
What is thermal inversion?
•Thermal inversions occur when warm air becomes sandwiched between two layers of cold air and acts like a lid on a valley.
•Warm air cannot rise, causing smog accumulation.
What are HAPs?
How are they released?
-Hazardous air pollutants (HAP), or air toxics, are compounds that can harm human health or damage the environment.
-Some released from consumer activities:
-Benzene escapes during automobile refueling.
-Some consumer products such as glues and cleaners release toxic materials into the air.
-The majority are released from manufacturing:
-Perchloroethyleneis released from dry cleaning processes.
What has been instrumental in controlling air pollution?
In the U.S., implementation of the Clean Air Act has been the primary means of controlling air pollution.
-Catalytic converters, removal of lead in gasoline, industrial, mining & manufacturing emissions control.
What does the Ozone in the outer layers of the atmosphere do?
Ozone in the outer layers of the atmosphere shields the Earth from the harmful effects of ultraviolet light radiation.
In 1985, it was discovered that a significant thinning of the ozone layer over the Antarctic occurred during the Southern Hemisphere spring.
•Spring 1986 scientists announced the atmosphere above South Pole had 40% less ozone (O3)
•The stratosphere was being reduced, and this area became known as the?
“ozone hole”
What can lead to the destruction of the Ozone?
•Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and similar compounds can release chlorine atoms which can lead to the destruction of ozone.
–Used for foam insulation, Propellants, Refrigerants, Air conditioners, Refrigerators, Solvent Cleaning in industry
How long can it take for chlorofluorocarbon molecules to get into the stratosphere?

How long can they react with the ozone?
10 to 20 years

for up to 120 years
What are the effects of low ozone layer?
-Decline of plant growth
-Increase skin cancers
-Reduced amphibian population
What is The Halogen Depletion Hypothesis?
•1974 paper in Naturein which Rowland and Molina hypothesized that ozone could be reduced by chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s)
CFCl3+ hv - Cl+ CFCl2
Cl+ O3 - ClO+ O2
O + ClO - Cl+ O2
O + O3 -O2+ O2
What is the Montreal Protocol, and when it ratified by Congress?
In 1987, several industrialized countries including Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Norway, Netherlands, the Soviet Union, and West Germany agreed to freeze chlorofluorocarbon and halon(used in fire extinguishers) production and reduce production by 50% by 2000.
What was the result of the Montreal Protocol?
emissions dropped 87% from their peak in 1988.
What is Climate Change?
Climate Change is a shift in the long-run average of weather
What are three features of Weather?
•Atmospheric conditions at particular place and time
•How it changes from day to day
•Temperature, precipitation, wind speed, cloud cover, humidity, etc
What are three features of Climate?
•Average weather conditions over a long period
•Repeating pattern of weather
•Average temperature and average precipitation
Are Climate and Weather the same thing?
Climatic records indicate over the past 160,000 years a close correlation between greenhouse gas concentration and global temperatures.

True or False
The Fourth Assessment Report, Climate Change 2007, concluded?
-The average temperature on Earth has increased 0.56 to 0.92°C (1.0-1.7°F) in the past 100 years. 1998 was the hottest year on record; 2005 was the second warmest; 2002 was the third.
-Sea level is rising about 1.8 mm/yr or 18 cm in 100 years.
-A strong correlation exists between temperature increase and amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
-Human activity greatly increases amounts of greenhouse gases in atmosphere.
What is the Greenhouse Effect?
Greenhouse gases allow sunlight to penetrate the atmosphere.
-Water vapor (H2O), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) not natural
-Sunlight is absorbed by Earth’s surface.
-It is re-radiated as infrared energy (heat).
-The heat is absorbed by gases in the atmosphere.
There are six major sources of EPA Criteria Pollutants.

True or False
One group of compounds produced by humans that are minor components of greenhouse gas are collectively called?
Melting of arctic sea ice might influence survival of polar bear populations.
True or False
The main activity of the U.N. initiated Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is to?
provide regular intervals of assessments of climate change knowledge.
Why is carbon monoxide dangerous?
It binds with hemoglobin, reducing the blood's oxygen carry-capacity.
Types of unmodified materials released into the atmosphere are?
primary air pollutants
Particulate matter is a dangerous pollutant because it?
irritates the lining of the respiratory tract
The decline in arctic sea ice may be contributed to?
Climate change and naturally occurring climate variability.
One of the IPCC reports provided much of the technical information which led to?
the Kyoto Protocol
The stratosphere is a wind current that blows from west to east.

True or False
Condition in which warm air is sandwiched between two layers of cold air is called?
thermal inversion
What does The Ozone Multilateral Fund do?
provides financial assistance to businesses to become CFC
The amount of lead released into the atmosphere has?
has declined since the introduction of lead free gasoline
Industrial dust and ash are considered?
What is listed by EPA as a criteria air pollutant?
carbon monoxide
Who ultimately pays for the changes mandated by the 1990 ?
Nitrous oxides enter the atmosphere from fossil fuels and ___________.
Pollutants produced by the interaction of primary pollutants are?
secondary air pollutants
Ozone is formed when photochemical smog reacts with sunlight.

True or False
There are many positive actions that have improved air quality.

True or False
Categories of air pollution include carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and lead.

True or False
False. these are part of the catagories
Lead levels fell by 94% in North America between 1982 and 2002 due to the?
elimination of leaded gasoline.
Carbon dioxide is put into the atmosphere as a waste product of fossil fuel combustion.

True or False
Loss of calcium ions from soil may be a major problem associated with acid rain?

True or False
What is the most abundant of the greenhouse gases?
Carbon dioxide
What contributes to the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?
What does Methane come from?
comes from biological sources and from some fossil-fuel burning activities.
How does Nitrous oxide enter the atmosphere?
from fossil fuels and fertilizers.
Where do Chlorofluorocarbons come from?
refrigerants, cleaning solvents, and propellants are also a component of the greenhouse effect.
Although a small increase in the average temperature of the Earth may seem trivial, it could set in motion changes that could significantly alter the climate of major regions of the world.
True or False
What are Potential Consequences of Global Warming
-Rising sea level
-Beach and coastal wetland erosion
-Substantial loss of coastal area
-Land area of some island nations and countries like Bangladesh would change dramatically as flooding occurred.
-Geographic distribution of organisms could be
-Movement of vegetation
-Species extinction
What would be the first species to become extinct from the result of global warming?
-Toads first species to go extinct due to climate change
- High altitudes in Central American cloud forests
- 9-52%of world’s known terrestrial species could go extinct
- Worst case: 38-52%
- Best case: 9-13%
Could the result of global warming have both a positive and negative effect on the food supply?
Growing evidence indicates air within homes and other buildings can be more seriously polluted than outdoor air in the most industrialized cities.

True or False
What is Radon?
Radon is an inert radioactive gas with a half-life of 3.8 days.
How does Radon enter the home?
It can enter a home through an open space in the foundation, from gaps around pipes, or from wells.
What is the most important form of indoor air pollution?
The most important of these health problems are associated with tobacco smoking.
What is it called when a property of carbon dioxide that allows light to enter but not leave the atmosphere?
Greenhouse effect
The main activity of the U. N. initiated Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC) is to do what?
To provide regular intervals of assessments of climate change
What do Scrubbers, precipitators, and filters do?
reduce particulate pollution
One of the ways in which Mexico City has improved air quality was to?
To eliminate lead from gasoline, require catalytic converters on all automobiles, and to improve public transportation
Since the prevailing wind patterns in the U. S. are from east to west, the best place to avoid air pollution is on the extreme east coast.

True or False
Motor vehicle emissions are not a major source of air pollution

True or False
Radon gas may cause lung cancer if exposure is prolonged at high concentrations

True or False
What is the function of a catalytic Converter?
It reduces lead and other metals
Acid rain is caused by the emission of chlorofluorocarbons into the atmosphere

True or False
Ozone, when found close to the surface of the earth, is a pollutant .

True or False
Who ultimately pays for the changes mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act?
Why is carbon monoxide dangerous?
It binds with hemoglobin, reduces the blood's oxygen carry - capacity
Atmosphere ozone shields the earth from the harmful effects of ultraviolet light radiation

True or False
The major causes of water pollution in Louisiana are nutrients, sediment, and microorganisms.

Which stakeholder group will be most affected by needed changes to make rivers fishable and swimmable?
The decline in arctic sea ice may be contributed to?
Warmer Water

Both climate change and naturally occurring climate variability could be true
Chief source of chlorofluorocarbon in the environment is

refrigerant gases in refrigerators, air conditioners, as cleaning solvents, propellants in aerosol containers, as expanders in foams products .
All of these are correct
Scientists have agreed that human activity is causing the climate to get warmer

True or False
Sulfur dioxide levels in the U. S. have___________ since 1970
Decreased by 30%
What is the material that makes life possible on Earth?
Does water store heat?
What are waters physical properties?
–Water molecules are polar: one part of the molecule is slightly positive, and the other is slightly negative.
•Molecules tend to stick together.
•They also can separate other molecules from each other (solvent).
What is an important as quantity?
Water quality
What percent of the earth’s surface is covered by water?
Of Earth’s freshwater what percent is available for use?
What is POTABLE water?
Unpolluted fresh water, suitable for drinking.
Shortages can be directly attributed to human-induced water pollution.

True or False
The World Health Organization estimates ______% of the world’s population does not have access to safe drinking water.
According to the U.N. Environment Program, how many deaths occur each year from water-related diseases, including cholera, malaria, dengue fever, and dysentery.
5-10 million
All water constantly recycled through a process called the
Hydrologic Cycle
What is the process by which plants give off water called?
Warm, moist air rises, cools, condenses (condensation), and falls as _______________________?
Surface water that moves across the surface of the land and enters streams and rivers is called?
Water that fills spaces in the substrate is called?
What are "tions" of the Hydrologic Cycle?
What is the water that fills spaces in the substrate?
What is water that enters the soil called?
Water entering the soil (infiltration) is either taken up by plant roots or moves downward until it reaches an impervious layer of rock, and accumulates in porous strata called an ?
An unconfined aquifer is usually near land’s surface.

True or False
The top layer saturated with water is called the?
Water Table
What is the area above the water table unsaturated with water called?
Vadosezone (zone of aeration)
What is a confined aquifer ?
A confined aquifer is bounded on top and bottom by layers impermeable to water.
An impervious confining layer is called an
A permeable confining layer is called an
Porosityis a measure of the size and number of spaces in the substrate.

True or False
Runoff and the infiltration rate are not greatly influenced by human activity.

True or False
A major concern in many urban areas is transportation of storm water.

True or False
What is a measurement of the amount of water taken from a source.
Water withdrawals
Water incorporated into a product, or lost to the atmosphere through evaporation or evapotranspiration, cannot be reused in the same geographic area and is said to be __________________.
Freshwater and conservation of aquatic resources are key to human well-being.

True or False
What is being jeopardized by population growth, rural to urban migration, rising wealth and resource consumption, and climate change?
The quality and quantity of water and life supporting ecosystem services
How much of water used for domestic purposes in North America is supplied by municipal water systems.
Over 90%
The average person in a North American home uses approximately _________________ of domestic water per day?
100 Gallons

•69% used as solvent to carry wastes (bathing, laundry, toilets, and washing dishes).
•29% used for lawn and garden (consumptive use).
•2% used for drinking or cooking.
In North America, more than ___ states expect a water crisis in the next ten years?

What cities are especially vulnerable?

–Fast-growing western cities are especially vulnerable
How much ground water is withdrawn daily in U.S.?
An average of 85 billion gallons of groundwater are withdrawn daily in the U.S.
What is a major use of groundwater
What are some groundwater management strategies
–Shift from groundwater to surface water, import water from outside the local water-system boundaries.
–Control pumping with guidelines, policies, taxes, or regulations.
–Conservation practices, techniques, and technologies
–Reuse wastewater (grey water) and treated wastewater (reclaimed water) for non-potable purposes.
–Desalination of brackish groundwater
Groundwater mining is removing water from an aquifer faster than it can be replenished.

True or False
What are results of over mining of ground water?
Name 3
•Land settling.
•Lowering of the water table.
•Saltwater intrusion into wells near coastal areas.
Public attitude is not a major cause of water loss.

True or False
What is a major loss of water?
Leaking water pipes and mains account for significant losses of water.
–Even in the developed world, losses may be as high as 20%.
–Poorer countries may lose over 50% of water to leaks.
What are the four types of irrigation methods?
–Surface / Flood
•Requires extensive canal systems.
•Requires the use of pumps.
–Trickle or Drip
•Strategically placed openings deliver water directly to the roots of plants.
•Underground pipes supply water to plants and can be used for drainage as well
The Clean Water Act (1972) seeks to protect U.S. waters from pollution.

True or False
–It specifically regulates pollutant discharges into navigable waters by implementing two concepts:
•Setting water quality standards for surface water.
–NPDES Permits –Point source
•Limiting effluent discharges into the water.
_____________________________________is the amount of oxygen required to decay a certain amount of organic matter?
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
Disease-causing organisms are a very important pollution problem in most of the world.

What is most often the source of these organisms.
Untreated or inadequately treated human or domesticated animal waste
What is excessive growth of algae and aquatic plants due to added nutrients called?
How does particulate matter affect water quality?

Name 4 ways.
•Particles alter the clarity of the water.
•They cover spawning sites.
•They act as abrasives that injure organisms.
•They carry toxic materials
What is a source of pollution readily located and identified?

What is an example of this?
point source

–Municipal and industrial waste discharge pipes.
–Diffuse pollutants from agricultural land and urban paved surfaces

–Acid rain

. . . . are called?
Nonpoint sources
What are the four human uses of water?
How can individuals protect surface and ground waters
from non-point pollution?
– Use less toxic or nontoxic alternatives to commonly used home chemicals.
– Buy chemicals only in the amount you intend to use, and apply them only as directed. More is not better.
– Take unwanted household chemicals to hazardous waste collection centers. Do not pour them down the drain.
– Never pour unwanted chemicals on the ground.
– Use water-based products whenever possible.
– When landscaping your yard, select native plants
that have low requirements for water, fertilizers, and pesticides.
– Test your soil before applying fertilizers.
At one time, many detergents contained phosphates, which contributed to eutrophication.

True or False
Name a few items that are found in municipal water discharge.
Pharmaceuticals, hormones, detergent metabolites, insecticides, fire retardants, and plasticizers, among other chemicals, also found in municipal water discharge.
Are Pharmaceuticals, Hormones, and Other Organic Wastewater Contaminants in U.S. Streams a problem?
What is the primary cause of water pollution.
Agricultural activities
• Excessive fertilizer use may lead to eutrophication in many aquatic habitats.
• Runoff from animal feedlots carries nutrients, organic matter, and bacteria.
• Agricultural runoff from large, open expanses is a major source of water pollution
Agricultural runoff from large, open expanses is a major source of water pollution, but can be controlled:

Name three ways
– Leave conservation buffer.
– Keep soil covered with crop.
– Control amount and timing of fertilizer application.
What occurs when industry withdraws water from a source, uses it for cooling purposes, and returns heated water to its original source?
Thermal Pollution
Today in the industrialized world, most cooling water is not released in such a way that aquatic ecosystems are endangered.

True or False
Name two major Marine Pollution accidents.
• The Exxon Valdez ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska, in 1989 and spilled 42 million liters (11 million gallons) of oil.
– This affected nearly 930 miles of coastline.
– Economic impact on the local economy was severe.
• Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico,
April 20, 2010, killed 11 people, injured 17, released 4.9 million barrels of oil (42 gallons = 1 barrel)
Tanker accidents are spectacular, but more oil is released as a result of small, regular releases from other sources.

True or False
An international agreement was reached in 1992
that declared new oil tankers must be double- hulled.

Currently how many tankers are double hauled?
Name 5 major sources groundwater pollution?
Agricultural products
Underground storage tanks
Septic tanks
Surface impoundments
What is the mixture of organisms and other particulate matter that have settled out during the treatment process called?
Sewage sludge
What type of sewage treatment plants hold wastewater in settling tanks with air continuously bubbled through it, and water and sludge eventually separate out.
What is the additional stage that is used to remove inorganic nutrients (phosphorous and nitrogen) left after primary and secondary treatments called?
Tertiary sewage treatment
What is the process of transferring water from one area to another?
Water Diversion
What is a major consequence of diverting water for irrigation and other purposes
water for irrigation and other purposes is water bodies downstream are deprived of their source of water.
– This often has serious ecological effects.
• Lake levels decline, affecting fish and other wildlife populations.
What is the process by which water- soluble salt accumulates in the soil called?
Almost all of the original wetlands still exist.

True or False

Less than half the original wetland acreage remains.
What do wetlands provide?
– Wildlife spawning and breeding habitats
– Natural water filtration systems
– Slow floodwaters, permitting nutrient settling
- Floodwater control
The energy for the hydraulic cycle is provided by
the sun
How is water use measured?
By either the amount withdrawn or the
amount consumed
Pollution from a single pipe or series of pipes is called?
point source
Most large urban areas depend on which of the following for their water supply?
Diffuse pollutants, such as agricultural runoff that are not from a single source are called?
nonpoint source
Water intended for human consumption is referred to as?
drinking water
The largest consumptive use of water is for municipal drinking water.

True or False
By the year 2025, it is projected that _____ percent of the world's population will live in water-stressed river basins.
What is an issue that commonly results in an international water dispute?
quotas and water allocation to different stakeholder groups
Plants in natural wetlands are able to remove _______ if sufficient river miles are undisturbed.
Unpolluted freshwater supplies are known as?
potable water
"Water stress" is a situation in which disruptive water shortages can frequently occur.

True or False
An influx of organic compounds containing nitrogen and phosphorus into aquatic environments can cause an increase in aquatic plant and algae growth.

True or False
What percent of sewage is treated in North America?
Aquifer that usually occurs near the land's surface is called?
unconfined aquifer
Water moves through a cycle referred to as the "water yield cycle."

True or False
Which nutrient(s) stimulates algae and aquatic plant growth?
nitrates and phosphates
What is the Ogaliala Aquifer?
It is a vast yet shallow underground water table aquifer located beneath the Great Plains in the United States.

One of the world's largest aquifers, it covers an area of approximately 174,000 mi² (450,000 km²) in portions of the eight states of South Dakota, Nebraska, Wyoming, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Texas.
Water diversion is part of the water - use planning process

True or False
A permeable layer in an artesian aquifer is called an?
What part of the waste water treatment process removes larger particles from sewage by screening or settling?
Primary sewage treatment
Protected forested watersheds help to maintain a steady flow of drinking water to many areas.

True or False
The amount of oxygen required to decompose organic matter is called?

(Biochemical Oxygen Demand)
The amount of runoff and evaporation is directly related to land use.

True or False
Agricultural runoff and mine drainage are examples of point sources of pollution.

True or False
Temperature change in the water can alter the kinds and number of plants and animals.

True or False
Treated wastewater that meets federal and state standards and drinking water standards is diverted for municipal drinking water for human consumption

True or False
Land use has an impact in how water infiltrates and on surface runoff.

True or False
What involves the removal of phosphorous and nitrogen from sewage?
Tertiary sewage treatment
Worldwide, the top use of water is for ________________
In which of the following college campuses is a sustainability initiative to reduce water consumption not currently underway?
University of California at Berkeley
Marine oil pollution is a type of water pollution
In the U. S., two agencies set the drinking water standards..... one of which is the ___________________
Food and Drug Administration
The Environmental Protection Agency helps regulate
water uses in the United Kingdom.

True or False
There is little difference between point and non-point source pollution.

True or False
Water that infiltrates the soil and is stored underground is called runoff.

True or False
Worldwide there is a relationship between the price of water and the amount consumed when what happens?
When the price of water Increases and water use decreases
Removal of water from an aquifer faster than it is replaced is caused by?
Groundwater mining
In the U. S. and Europe, the top use of water is for
What is Biodiversity?
is a broad term used to describe
the diversity of genes, species, and ecosystems
in a region
What is the elimination of all the individuals
of a particular species called?
Extinction is not a natural and common event in the
history of biological evolution.

True or False
Extinction and the resulting loss of biodiversity, is a
major consequence of human domination of the Earth

True or False
Over the past few hundred years, humans are
estimated to have increased the extinction rate
by a factor of?
1,000 to 10,000 times above
background rates typical over the planet’s
List some facts of Biodiversity Loss and Extinction
1/8 of bird species, 1/4 of mammal species, 1/3 of
amphibian species, and 1/2 of turtle species are

10% of the world’s coral reefs have been lost.

Mangrove forests are reduced by over 1% a year.

25% of global land is used to raise crops.
Local extinctions, although relatively common, are an
indication of?
the future of a species is not
As population is reduced in size, some of the
______________________ is likely to be lost.
genetic diversity
What kinds of species are more likely to go
extinct than others?

Name 4 characteristics
•Species with small, dispersed populations
–Successful breeding is difficult.
•Organisms in small, restricted areas, such as islands.
–Environmental changes have large effect.
•Specialized organisms
–Relying on constancy of a few key factors.
•Organisms at higher trophic levels.
–Low population sizes and reproductive rates.
Name an animal that is most likely to become extinct

Name an animal that is least likely to become extinct

Nearly all the Earth’s surface has been affected in some way by human activity.

True or False
As human populations grew what happened to their surroundings?
As human populations grew, and their tools became more advanced, the impact a single human could have on surroundings increased.
Environmental modifications allowed larger, dense human populations to survive, but at the expense of what?
previously existing ecosystems
What is Genetic diversity?
Genetic diversity is a term used to describe the number of kinds of genes present in a population.
High genetic diversity indicates what?

Clue = potato
many different kinds of genes present in individuals of a population
Low genetic diversity indicates?
nearly all individuals share the same genes and therefore the same characteristics.
Name five things that effect genetic diversity
1. Mutations
2. Migration
3. Sexual Reproduction
4. Population Size
5. Selective Breeding
What are Mutations in genetic diversity?
–Introduce new genetic information into a population by modifying current genes.
What allows movement of genes from one population to another?
what generates new genetic combinations?
Sexual reproduction
The smaller the population, the less genetic diversity it can contain.

True or False and why?

–There are fewer variations for each characteristic.
–Random events can significantly alter the genetic diversity in small populations.
What type of breeding can affect diversity because undesirable characteristics are eliminated?
Many domesticated plants and animals could not survive without human help.

True or False
What is Species diversity?
Species diversity is a measure of the number of different species present in an area.
What is Species richness?
Species richness refers to the number of different kinds of species in an area.
What is Taxonomic Richness?
Taxonomic richness takes into account the number of different taxonomic categories of the species present.
–Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
When humans exploit an area, they influence species diversity.

Name 4 ways
1. They convert natural ecosystems to human managed ecosystems.
–They harvest certain species for their use.
–They specifically eliminate species that compete with desirable species.
–They introduce nonnative species to an area.

2. Geological and evolutionary history of a region impacts species diversity.

3.Migration -nonnative species

4, Size of area –in general larger area, larger species diversity
What is the estimate range of number of species?

How many species have been described?

Why is it it hard to determine the number?
Estimates of the actual number of species range from a few million to 100 million.
•About 1.4 million species have been described.
–Many species are naturally rare, and others live in areas difficult to reach.
What is Ecosystem diversity ?
Ecosystem diversity is a measure of the number of kinds of ecosystems present in an area.
Many regions of the world appear to be quite uniform in terms of the kinds of ecosystems present.

List an example
•For example, many parts of the world are deserts:
–While there are general similarities, each is different and has specific organisms typical to the region.
–Local topographic conditions create unique patches of landscape.
What would an example of a pocket diversity be?
Pockets of diversity –e.g. stream, spring or other water source creates diversity within the desert.
Humans are totally dependent on the diversity of organisms on Earth.

Name a few examples of this
•Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria live in the roots of certain plants.
•Soil-building organisms live on the dead organic matter provided by plants and animals.
•It is impossible for organisms to function optimally unless it has its supporting cast of players that are part of the ecosystem.
What is Nutrient cycling
•Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and other chemical elements are cycled through ecosystems.
What would be an example of the value of biodiversity in Cultural Uses?
•Enjoyment of landscapes, individual organisms, scientific study, educational activities, and the spiritual significance of places.
Why is Water regulation and supply important?

Name two reasons
•Intact soil and vegetation slow water flow, allowing it to penetrate the soil and recharge aquifers.
•Water is available for agriculture, industry, and domestic use.
Explain Disturbance regulation and erosion control
•Land can be disturbed by fire, flood, windstorms, landslides, or human actions.
•Colonization of these sites by plants and animals heals the scars and prevents continued damage.
What is waste treatment?
Waste Treatment
•Decomposer organisms remove excess nutrients and pollutants from air, water, and soil.
What is the importance of Food and Raw Materials?
•Many people harvest wild plants and animals as food and medicine. Plants feed livestock, provide building materials, and firewood.
Humans are totally dependent on the diversity of organisms on Earth.

Name different ways we are dependent - there are 13 broad categories.
1. Nutrient Cycling
2. Cultural Uses
3. Water Regulation and Supply
4. Disturbance Regulation and Erosion Control
5. Waste Treatment
6. Food and Raw Materials
7. Atmospheric and Climate Services
8. Recreation
9. Biological Control Services
10. Pollination Services
11. Habitat Refuges
12. Genetic Resources
13 Soil Formation
What is the importance of Atmospheric and Climate Services
Atmospheric and Climate Services
•Many atmospheric gases are cycled between organisms and the atmosphere.
–Removal of carbon dioxide in photosynthesis helps control the warming of the planet.
–Nitrogen and sulfur are modified by organisms.
–Ozone provides protection from UV light
What percent of our common drugs come from plants and animals?
Choices between competing uses for ecosystems are often determined by economic values.

True or False
What is biocentric preservation?
A case can be made that all species have an intrinsic value and a fundamental right to exist

•Extinction is not necessarily bad, but human-initiated extinction is.
•Experiencing natural landscapes and processes is an important human right.
The values held by a person are typically
shaped by experience. As our society shifts from rural living to urban living what is happening?
As the shift from rural to urban continues, there is
continual erosion of natural experiences that can
shape the values of people.
• These values are important in determining how
society will approach threats to biodiversity.
Five major human activities threaten to reduce

What are they?
• Habitat loss
• Overexploitation
• Introduction of exotic species
• Predator and pest control activities
• Climate change
The International Union for Conservation of Nature
and Natural Resources (IUCN) estimates that ________________ of threatened species are under threat as a result of habitat loss or fragmentation.
80% - 90%
Habitat loss and fragmentation are thought to be a
major cause of past extinctions.

True or False

• About 40% of the world’s land surface has been converted to cropland and permanent pasture.
• Typically, the most productive natural ecosystems (forests and grasslands) are the first to be modified by humans.
• Pressures to modify the environment are greatest in areas with high population density
Originally, half of the U.S., three-fourths of
Canada, and almost all of Europe, and
significant portions of the rest of the world were

True or False
What is Deforestation?
Deforestation is the process of destroying a
forest, often for the purposes of fuel, building
materials, or to clear land for farming.
Modern forest management practices involve a
compromise that allows economic exploitation while
maintaining some environmental values of the

Name 4 things that effectively forested areas do.
– Reduce erosion.
– Reduce runoff.
– Modify the climate.
– Provide recreational opportunities
What is the Golden Toad?
The Golden Toad was described in 1966. Since 1989,
not a single Golden Toad has been seen anywhere in the
world, and it is classified by the IUCN as an extinct
What is removal of all trees in an area called?

It is economical but increases erosion, especially on steep slopes.
Clear cutting
What is clear cutting in small, unconnected patches called?

It preserves biodiversity
Patchwork clear cutting
What is single species tree harvesting called?

It is not as economical, but reduces ecosystem damage.
Selective harvesting
What ecosystem has the greatest species diversity?
Tropical forests have greater species diversity than any other ecosystem.
BUT . . . . .
•They are not as likely as temperate forests to regenerate after logging due to poor soil characteristics.
•Currently, few tropical forests are being managed for long-term productivity.
Several concerns are raised by tropical deforestation, name them. (5)
•It significantly reduces species diversity in the world.
•It impacts the climate via lowered transpiration.
•Deforested lands are easily eroded.
•Without the forests to trap CO2, there may be increased global warming.
•Human population pressure is greatest in tropics, and still increasing
Many lumber companies maintain forest plantations as crops and manage them in the same way farmers manage crops.

How is this done? and what are drawbacks?
•Plant single species, even-aged forests of fast growing hybrid trees.

•Competing species are controlled by fire, and insects controlled by spraying.

•Trees mature to harvestable size in as low as 20 years (vs. 100).

–Quality of lumber reduced.

–Low species diversity and wildlife value.
What are Rangelands?

Where are they used?

Is wildlife native to these regions?
Rangelands are lands too dry to support crops, but receive enough precipitation to support grasses and drought-resistant shrubs.

They are often used to raise low-density populations of domesticated or semi-domesticated animals

No, Wildlife are usually introduced species not native to the region.
The conversion of rangelands to grazing by domesticated animals has major impacts on biodiversity.

What are the impacts?
•Selective eating habits of livestock tend to reduce certain species of native plants and encourage others.

•Important to regulate number of livestock on rangelands, especially in dry areas.

–Overgrazing is a severe problem where human population pressures are great.

–Desertification is the process of converting arid or semiarid land to desert because of improper human use.
In marine ecosystems, much of the harvest is restricted to shallow parts of the ocean where bottom-dwelling fish can be easily harvested.

True or False
What is a "Trawl"
Trawls are nets dragged along the bottom
How do Trawls harm the marine ecosystem?
•They disturb the seafloor and cause habitat damage.
•About 25% of catch is undesirable, and thus discarded, but they are usually dead, and their removal further alters the ecological nature of the seafloor.
Freshwater systems are often modified for navigation, irrigation, flood control, or power production.

How do these modification effect the ecosystem?
All of these processes may alter natural ecosystems and change numbers or kinds of aquatic organisms present.
About 4.3% of U.S. land is developed as urban centers, industrial sites, and transportation infrastructure.

How is this a threat to Biodiversity?
•Many areas are covered with impermeable surfaces that prevent plant growth and divert rainfall.

•The trend is toward greater urbanization.
When does Overexploitation occur?
•Over-exploitation occurs when humans harvest organisms faster than the organisms are able to reproduce, threatening some, and causing extinction in others
According to the IUCN, what is responsible for over 30% of endangered animal species and 8% of endangered plant species.
U.N. estimates 70% of world’s marine fisheries are over-exploited or are fully exploited and in danger of being over-exploited.

True or False
What is becoming an increasingly important as a source of fish production?
Fish farming (aquaculture)
Currently, about 60% of all aquaculture production is from freshwater systems.

The environmental impacts are similar to those of marine systems what are they?
•Nutrient overloads
•Escape into natural waters
•Land conversion
Meat from wild animals is often referred to as?
Meat from wild animals is often referred to as bush meat.
The Wildlife Conservation Society estimates 70% of wildlife species in Asia and Africa and about 40% of species in Latin America are being hunted unsustainable.
•Hunting of wildlife is a part of all subsistence cultures.
•Many kinds of wildlife are considered delicacies and are highly prized for the home and restaurant trade.
Harvest of living animals for the pet and aquarium trade is a significant problem why?
•The method of capture is often problematic.
–Destruction of bird nests.
–Toxins used to stun fish.
Wildlife are also hunted because parts of the animal may have particular value.

Name 2 items of perceived value?
–Ivory and animal skins
–Traditional medicines
Some introductions of exotic species are purposeful, while others are accidental.

True or False
The IUCN estimates about 30% of birds and 15% of plants are threatened because they are unable to successfully compete against invasive (exotic) species.

True or False
What is the IUCN?
International Union for Conservation of Nature
What are a few examples of Invasive Species?
•Kudzu Vine
•Water hyacinth
•Zebra Mussels
•Asian Long-Horned Beetles
•Water milfoil
What are threats to biodiversity and some examples of each?
name 4
1, Disease and Pollution
•Introduction of disease has had considerable impact on American forests.
–Chestnut blight
–Dutch elm disease

2. Various insects have had an effect on ecosystem structure.
–Asian long horned beetle
–Emerald beetle (ash trees)

3. Freshwater ecosystems have been greatly affected.
–Zebra mussel

4. Toxic Pollutants –DDT, Lead, Pesticides
Systematic killing of certain organisms that interfere with human activities also results in reduced biodiversity.

What is an example of this?
•Large predators have been locally exterminated because they preyed on domestic animals.

•Passenger pigeons became extinct because of over harvesting (post 1860) and increased conversion of forested land.
Predator and competitor control activities have been largely eliminated in North America.

True or False

–Hunting and trapping of wolves in Alaska and Canada is an exception.
What has been used to enhance breeding success of Kirtland’s warblers.
Control of cowbird populations
Many species live near the limit of their physiological tolerance. A slight change in the temperature may push them over the brink.

True or False
What species are effected greatly by climate change?
Amphibians, corals, and arctic species are greatly affected by climate change.
The role of climate change on the survival of species has become an issue.
What has happened to frogs and migration patterns?
–Planet warming may have caused a fungal disease in frogs.
–Melting sea ice is changing migration patterns and food availability.
The World Conservation Union (IUCN) lists over ______________species as threatened with extinction?
IUCN classifies species in danger of extinction into four categories:

What are they?
1. Endangered
2. Vulnerable
3. Rare
4. Indeterminate
What Is Being Done to Preserve Biodiversity?
In the U.S., the primary action related to the preservation of biodiversity involved the passage of the Endangered Species Act (1973).

This legislation designates species as endangered or threatened and gives the U.S. government jurisdiction over those species.

•Directs that no activity by a government agency should lead to the extinction of an endangered species.
•Directs government agencies to use whatever means necessary to preserve the species in question.
Why is the loss of biodiversity not a high priority for the general public in developing countries?
They are more concerned with immediate needs of food and shelter than long-range issues such as species extinction.
Awareness and concern about loss of biodiversity is high in many developed countries.

What is the result of this concern?
Most vulnerable species in these areas have already been eliminated.
Endangered species are?

•Currently there are about ____________
those that have such small numbers that they are in immediate danger of becoming extinct.

Currently about 1,300 species
Threatened species could become extinct if a critical environmental factor is changed.
•The preservation question ultimately becomes one of assigning value to the species.

•Amendments to ESA have weakened ability of U.S. government to add new species to the list.
Explain Habitat Analysis and Management
•Managing a particular species requires an understanding of the habitat needs of that species.

•An animal’s habitat must provide food, water, and cover.
–Cover conceals or protects animals from the elements or enemies.
–Minimum Viable Population

•Modifications made to enhance the success of a species are known as habitat management
Game species are often managed so they do not exceed carrying capacity of their habitat.

True or False
Wildlife managers use population censuses to check if populations are within appropriate levels.

True or False
With suitable habitat and protection, most wild animals can maintain a sizable population.

True or False
High reproductive capacities and heavy protection have caused very large populations to arise from once-rare animals.

True or False
Migratory birds can travel thousands of kilometers.

True or False
How do migratory birds travel?
•They travel north in spring to reproduce.
•They travel south in fall to escape cold temperatures.
International agreements may be necessary to maintain appropriate habitat.

True or False
What regions are most productive regions of the oceans and why?
Coastal regions are most productive regions of the oceans.
•Sunlight penetration of shallow water makes it warm.
•Nutrient deposition from land makes this region fertile.
•Wind/wave action stirs nutrients.
One of the major problems associated with the management of marine fisheries is achieving agreement on harvest limits.

True or False
Where is fishing pressure concentrated?
Coastal regions
Humans have easy access to freshwater ecosystems, so management of these systems is not as intense.

True or False

management of these systems is much more intense.
Many North American freshwater fisheries are primarily managed for sport fishery.

True or False
Functioning ecosystems and their component organisms provide many valuable services that are often overlooked because they are not easily measured in economic terms.

True or False
Many people also consider the loss of biodiversity to be an ethical problem.

True or False
The primary causes of habitat loss are by:

Four things - name them.
•Humans converting ecosystems to agriculture and grazing.
•Over-exploitation by harvesting species at unsustainable levels.
•Introduction of exotic species that disrupt ecosystems and compete or prey on native organisms.
•Purposeful killing of pest organisms such as large predators.
Protection of biodiversity typically involves legal protections by national laws and international agreements, and management of the use of species and ecosystems at sustainable levels.

True or False
Which is the greatest cause of extinction?
habitat alteration
Grazing of arid and semiarid lands provides little value or food to the people of that area.

True or False
What invasive species is an external parasite of lake trout and decimated populations for more than 20 years?
Waterfowl present special wildlife management problems because
they are migratory
Generalized niche is NOT a characteristic of a species likely to become extinct?

True or False
The Endangered Species Act of 1973
gave the federal government jurisdiction over any species that were designated as endangered.
Impact to ecosystems from human activity has sometimes been referred to as
"Engineered ecologies."
The introduction of exotic species into a freshwater ecosystem generally increases the population of the native species.

True or False
The taxonomic group that displays the greatest biodiversity is
Elimination of all of the individuals of a species.
Extinction of a species in one area of its range is called
local extinction.
Due to isolation there is a high degree of endemism in species occupying river systems.

True or False
In the past few hundred years, global trade and tourism have in many ways rendered natural barriers ineffective, allowing non-native species to travel vast distances.

True or False
Process of developing a new species.
There is very little that a person can do to help control the spread of exotic species.

True or False
Any change in the DNA of an organism is called?
Over the past few hundred years, humans have increased the species extinction rate by as much as
1000 times.
Those species that could become extinct if a critical factor in their environment were changed.
threatened species
If trees are removed from a streamside, the water is likely to become warmer.

True or False
Forest harvesting method in which patches of trees are clear-cut among patches of timber that are uncut.
patchwork clear-cutting
Large populations have less genetic diversity than small populations.

True or False
Sport hunting seasons are regulated to the fall so that
surplus animals are taken before the challenges of winter.
Process of changing the natural community to encourage the increase in populations of certain desirable species is called?
Habitat management
High genetic diversity means that almost all of the individuals of a population have the same characteristics

True or False
Many migratory Waterfowl
Mate in Canada and winter in Mexico
Biodiversity hotspot is
An area where the most endangered habitat are found
Environmental impacts from freshwater aquaculture include
Nutrient overload and escape of exotic species
Species are more likely to become extinct if they
Have both low population density and reproductive rate
As the human population increases extinction rates also increase

True or False
Salmon introduction in the Great Lakes has brought in millions of dollars from sport fishing, yet environmentally it has
Decreases native fish populations and disrupted spawning
_________________ is an organization that certifies whether or not products are dolphin - safe.
The Earth Island Institute
Humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly and extensively in the last 50 years than in any other period

True or False
World fish harvests have remained constant since 1989 which indicates
Fisheries have been exploited to their capacity
What happens if a species have both low population density and low reproductive rate
Species are more likely to become extinct