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61 Cards in this Set

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overall protein and calorie depletion, seen in kids (thin, loose skin, bright eyes)
-protein deficiency
-affects children in tropical areas (africa)
-vitiman a deficiency
-associated with protein shortage
-deficiency of iron
-seen in children, women and men
-characterized by lack of energy and low levels of productivity
-iodine deficiency
-20 million people affected
-swollen thyroid gland
what makes soil fertile?
-root environment with oxygen, neutral pH level and low salt
-mineral nutrients: phosphate, potassium and others
-low permeability water holding capacity
soil textures affect on water holding capacity
soil textures determined by mixture of clay, silt and sand
root causes of soil erosion
-over cultivation/farming
-over grazing
-cutting down forests
immediate causes of erosion
high salty content
water is soaked up by the soil, reaches the bottom, creates clay and then has no where to go, roots rot
the green revolution
the introduction of new high yielding varieties of wheat and rice in 3rd world countries
-its increased crop yields
blue baby syndrome
-caused by high nitrate contamination in water resulting in drecreased oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin in babies
-leaching nitrate came from fertilizers from farms
people-food predicament
-global food production increased over the past 2 decades
-producing food causes more pollution and environmental damage than any other human activity
-transportation/distribution of food is a problem
-people must be able to afford food
per capita gain production
reasons for decrease:
-world population increasing (more mouths to feed)
-increasing demand for foods (meat)
-degradation and loss of cropland
-water supply for irrigation
any organism which adversely affects human interest
problems caused by pests
-resource competition
-sources of discomfort
-vectors of disease
natural organic insecticide
chemicals extracted from plants
chlorinated hydrocarbons insecticide
(DDT) stored in fat and persist in the environment
organophosphate insecticide
(OP) nerve toxins
carbamates insecticide
similar to OP but less toxic
microbial agents and biological controls insecticides
living organisms or their toxins that kill pests
-Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) and parasitic wasps
pesticide tredmill
you never wipe out everything, you must have increasing doeses to get pests out
integrated pest management (IPM)
-aims to minimize the use of synthetic organic pesticides without jeopardizing the environment
-the goal is not to eradicate the pests but to manage the pests and to protect the environment
bacillus thurengensis (BT)
pathogens and parasites
food infection
causes by harmful organisms that are eaten then multiplied in intestines
food intoxication
when bacteria gives off toxins in food
2 classes of microbial food borne disease
-food infection
-food intoxication
-most common
-causes diarrhea, nausea, fever, vomiting, ab pain
-symptoms last 2-5 days
-comes from beef, chicken and unpasteurized milk
-most common
-comes from meat, poultry and eggs
-symptoms are nausea, vomiting, prostration, ab pain, fever, chills and diarrhea
-very dangerous to pregnant women and infants
-associated with processing environments and milk products
-grows fast at low temps
-refrigeration does not guarantee no bacterial multiplication
-violent disease onset
-found in cooked ham, salads of protein foods, custard pastries, Hollandaise sauce and warmed over food
-often thought as the "24 hour flu"
-most serious
-found in home-canned, low-acid foods (beans, corn , spinach, beets and mushrooms)
-causes respiratory paralysis and is considered a deadly poison
E. Coli
-found in raw/rare ground beef, unpasteurized milk, contaminated water and dirty hands
-highly infectious pathogen
-200 to 400 young and old die from it yearly
mad-cow disease
-progressive neurological disorder of cows
-cause is a prion (infective protein)
subsistence farmer
-farmers in developed world using traditional agriculture
-uses human labor and draft animals to produce enough crops and livestock for the family
industrialized agriculture
-shifting from animal labor to machinery
-increasing use of fertilizers and pesticides
-new crop varities
-uses fossil fuels, water, fertilizers and pesticides to produce huge amounts of single crops or livestock
regulates retail food, warehouses, processing plants and animal drugs
regulates slaughter houses and chemical residual testing
establishes residue limits and provides info on pesticides approved for household use
investigates and tracks food illnesses but does not regulate food safety
What is needed to make our food system safer?
-national food safety initiative with improved outbreak response, better education and increased use of science
-single federal agency with responsibility
Who has the bigger role in food protection, the government or industry?
industry because government cant cover all the bases
prospects for reducing world hunger
-reducing post harvest losses
-eating lower on food web
-improving yields per acre (maybe)
substance for destroying stuff
environmental impact on pesticides
-development of resistance
-killing of beneficial species either directly or interrupting food web
-environmental contamination
human health impact pesticides
-toxic to humans
-acute symptoms are headache, weakness, fatigue and dizziness
-children at risk of chronic exposure
best soil
"soil ecosystem" which is a combination of soil organisms, detritus and minerals
steps in preventing food borne disease
-avoid cross-contamination
-practice good sanitation
-avoid the food danger zones
-cook & cool foods thoroughly
cross contamination
the transfer of bacteria from one food to another by soiled hands and utensils, kitchen equipment and raw foods to ready to eat food
free of visible soil
clean and reduced number of harmful microorganisms to a safe level
temperature danger zones
-food in >40 F to <140
-refrigerate in >32 F to <40 F
-ground meat cooked in 155 F
proper hot food
above 140 F
cold foods
below 40 F
pork and ground meats
at/above 155 F
poultry and stuffed foods
at/above 165 F
microwave foods
25 F higher than original temp
organic fertilizers
add humus and nutrients for the soil
inorganic fertilizers
-contaminates water
-easy to apply but does nothing beneficial for the top soil
world-wide total
increased but then eventually leveled off