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74 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is used as replacement therapy for adrenocortical insufficiency (Addison's disease)?
Mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids
Adrenal corticosteroids are used to treat what?
-Addison's disease
-Allergic disorders
-Inflammation conditions: rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis.
What is the condition associated with uncontrolled bone formation?
Paget's disease
What are the characteristics of Cushing's syndrome?
Redistribution of fat, puffy face, increased body hair growth, acne, insomnia, and increase appetite
What are some examples of Biguanides, an oral hypoglycemic agent?
Metformin and phenformim
Orinase is the prototype for what oral hypglycemic agent?
Tolbutamide realses insulin from what cells?
Alpha or Beta?
What are the side effects of Tolbutamide?
*GIT: nausea, stomach pain, vomiting and diarrhea.
*Cutaneous reactions: rashes and photsensitivity
*Disulfiram like realction (headache, nausea, and flushing) after consumption of alcohol.
What are the therapeutic uses of tolbutmaide?
used to treat patients with Type II diabetes, who cannot be treated with diet alone or who are unwilling to take insulin if dietary control fails.
What are the three hormones produced by the Adrenal cortex?
Minderalcorticoidsfrom zona glomerulosa (Aldosterone, fludrocortisone {Florinef})
Glucocorticioids from the zona fasciculata (cortisol hydrocortisone {Cortef}, prenisone {deltasone}, dexamethasone {decadron}, bethamethasone {celestone})
adrenal androgens from the zona reticularis.
What are the functions of mineralocorticoids?
-Casue reabsorptions of sodium and water from kidneys
-Responisble for maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance in the body.
What are the functions of glucocorticoids?
-Metabolic: stimulate gluconeogenesis, lipolysis,a nd protein catabolism
-Anatiinflammatory actions: inhibition of protagladin and leukotriene biosynthesis. Increase resistance to stress.
The following are side effects of which adrenal corticosteroid?
-hypernatremia (excess NA+)
-Fluid retention and edema; hypertension
Glucocorticoids have what side effects on the Metabolic system, GI tract, CNS,and eye?
Metabolic: weight gain, hperglycemia, oseoporosis, and muslce wasting.
GI: Gastric ulcers
CNS: Psychosis
Eye: cataract, gaucoma
What adrenal corticosteroid causes Cushing's syndrome?
What is a is function of the Endocrine System?
1) To mainatian internal homeostasis through the use of endogenous chemicals known as hormones.
What are Hormones and what is their place in the Endocrine System?
Hormones are chemical messengers released into the circulation to act on target organs which may be located at some distance from the site of hormonal release.
What is the function of the Thyroid gland?
The thyroid gland facilitates normal growth and maturation by maintaining the level of metabolism in tissues that is optimal for their normal function.
Name two major thryoid hormaones.
1) Triiodothyronine (T3)
2) Thyroxine (T4)
What controls the function of the thyroid?
Trophic hormone and thyrotropin-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the anterior pituitary.
What effect do throid hormones play on Thermogenesis?
Increase in basal metabolic rate.
What are the effects of the thyroid homones on growth and development?
Facilitate normal growth and development by enhancing the release of growth hormones.
What is Cretinism?
Severe mental and physical retardation associated with lack of thyroid hormone in children.
What is the effect of thyroid hormones on the CVS?
Increase in heart rate and contractility.
What are two thyroid disorders?
1) Hypothroidism
2) hyperthyroidism
What are characteristics hypothyroidism?
lethargy, weight gain, constipation, bradycardia, cold intolerance, weakness
What are the characteristics of Hyperthyroidism?
Nervousness, weight loss, diarrhea, tachycardia, insomnia, muscle wasting, increased appetite, heat intolerance.
Calcitonin is used to treat what?
Excessive release of calcium in hypercalcemia and to decrease bone reorption in Paget's disease.
What can be done to treat hypothroidism?
Replacement therapy with synthetic and natural thyroid hormone preparations
Name the natural extracts used to treat hypothyroidism?
Thyroid tablets (Armour Thyroid) and thyroglobulin.
What are the synthetic treatments used to treat hypothyroidism?
Liotrix (Euthroid, Thyrolar) and T3 and T4
What is done to treat hyperthyroidism?
Reduction of thyroid activity and hormone effects can be accomplished by agents that interfere with the production of thyroid hormones.
Agents that interfere with the production of thyroid hormones can occur through what?
1) Attenuation of synthesis of thyroid hormones
2) Glandular destruction
What 2 drugs interfere with the production of thyroid hormones through the attenuation of synthesis of thyroid hormones?
1) thionamides
2) iodide
What occurs when gladular destruction is used to interfere with the production of thyroid hormones?
1) radiation (radioactice idodide)
2) Surgery
Insulin is secreted by what cells?
B-cells of the islets of Langerhans
Glucagon is secreted by what cells?
a-cells of the islets of langerhans
True or False? The pancreas is an endocrine and exocrine gland?
True, as an endocrine gland it produces peide hormone secreting insulin and glucagon. As an exocrine gland is is in control of digestive enzymes.
What triggers the insulin release in blood glucose levels?
The pancreas
What is the chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia which is due to insulin deficiency or insulin resistance?
Diabetes mellitus
What are the two main forms of diabetes?
1. Type I (juvenile-onset, insulin dependent diabetes)
2. Type II (maturity-onset, non insulin dependent diabetes)
What occurs in type II diabetes?
Decreased senstivity of peripheral tissues (liver & skeletal muscle) to circulate insulin, causing insulin resistance.
What occurs in type I diabetes?
There is complete failure of pancreatic B-cells function.
Drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus are what agents?
insuli and oral hypoglycemic
Sources of insulin can be isolated from?
-Animal sources (beef and pork)
-Human insulin is produced synthetically by recombinant DNA technology.
What is the majory pharmacological action of insulin?
To lower blood glucose levels.
What type of hormone is insulin?
What are insulin's effects on the liver and on muscle?
Liver: inhibits glycogenolysis and promotes glucose storage as glycogen

Muscle: Increased glycogen synthesis
How are insulin preparations classified?
They are classified according to onset, duration and intensity of action.
What are the side effects of insulin?
*initial symptoms include headache, sweating, tachycardia, hunger, and fatigue: may prodceed to mental consuion, convulsions, coma and death.
-Allergic reactions due to antigen-antibody reactions
-Weight gain
How are insulin preparations classified?
They are classified according to onset, duration and intensity of action.
Sulfnylureas and Biguanides are examples of what?
Oral hypoglycemic agents that are able to effectively lower blood sugar.
Tolbutamide, tolazamide (tolinase), chlorpropamide (diabinese) and glipizide (glucotrol) are examples of what oral hypoglycemic agent?
Iodide and Radioactive Iodide are used to control hyperthyroidism in what disease?
Graves' disease
What is Graves' disease?
Thyrotoxicosis auto-immune thyroid disease resulting in excess thyroxine hormone.
What are the characteristics of radioactive iodine, in the treatment of hyperthyroidism?
It can selectively destroy thyroid tissues in hyperthyroid patients and is active orally and can be rapidly incorporated into the thyroid glad.
True or False? Bone is a dynamic tissue which occasionally undergoes changes in mineral content and internal structure.
False. Bone is a dynamic tissue which CONSTANTLY undergoes changes in mineral content and internal structure.
What controls the balance between bone resorption and formation?
-Parathriod hormone (PTH)
-Vitamin D
What do parathyroid cells monitor?
Plasma calcium levels
A decrease in this activates the release of parathyroid hormone?
plasma calcium
PTH (parathyroid hormone) increases blood calcium levles by altering calcium metabolism in?
-GI tract
A decrease in calcium in the blood causes an increase in PTH and what other substances?
-Bone: increase in bone resorption
-Kidneys: increase in the production of Vit. D
-GI tract: increase in calcium absorption (Vit. D)
What are four conditions associated with deficiency of calcium/vitamin D?
Pagets's disease is a condition assocated with what?
Excess calcium
What can be done to treat calcium deficiency?
-Calcium Supplements
-Vitamin D analogues
What do calcium supplements prevent?
Used to prevent bone loss in conditions such as osteoporosis, osteomalcia, and hypoparathyroidism.
Calcitriol (Calcijex) and caldifediol (calderol) are examples of?
Vitamin D analogues
What do vitamin D analogues do?
Used to enhance bone mineralization in conditions such as osteodystrophy, rickets, osteomalacia and hypoparathyroidism.
Calcitonin is used to treat what?
Excessive release of calcium
How does Iodide used to treat hyperthyroidsim?
In high concentrations, iodide can suppress thyroid function by inhibiting all steps invovled in thyroid hormone biosynthesis.
Thionamides are used to treat what?
What are some examples of Thionamides, which are used to treat hyperthyroidism?
-Propylthiouracil (Propyl-thyracil)
-Methimazole (Tapazole)
How do Thionamides, which are used to treat hyperthyroidism, work?
Inhibition of thyroidal peroxidase.
Whare are the therapeutic uses of thionamides?
Treatment of hyperthyroidism due to Graves disease.