Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/120

Click to flip

120 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Rapid acting Insulin:

Lispro,Aspart, Glulisine

Short acting insulin:

Regular

Intermediate acting insulin:

NPH (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn)

Long acting insulin:

Glargine, Detemir

Class of Detemir

Long acting insulin

Class of Glargine

Long acting insulin

Class of NPH

Intermediate acting insulin

Class of Regular

Short acting insulin

Class of Glulisine

rapid-acting insulin

Class of Aspart

rapid-acting insulin

Class of Lispro

rapid-acting insulin

Clinical use of Insulin:

Type l DM, type 2 DM,gestational diabetes, lifethreateninghyperkalemia,and stress-inducedhyperglycemia

clinical use of which drug: Type l DM, type 2 DM,gestational diabetes, lifethreateninghyperkalemia,and stress-inducedhyperglycemia

insulin

Adverse reactions to insulin:

Hypoglycemia, very rarelyhypersensitivity reactions

Adverse reaction of which drug: Hypoglycemia, very rarelyhypersensitivity reactions.

insulin

MOA of insulin:

Bind insulin receptor (tyrosinekinase activity).Liver: inc. glucose stored as glycogen.Muscle: inc. glycogen and proteinsynthesis, inc. K+ uptake.Fat: aids TG storage

MOA of which drug: Liver: inc. glucose stored as glycogen. Muscle: inc. glycogen and protein synthesis, K+ uptake. Fat: aids TG storage

insulin

Name the Biguanide

Metformin

class of Metformin:

Biguanide

route of administration of metformin:

oral

desirable effects of metformin:

􀂀dec. gluconeogenesis, inc. glycolysis, inc. peripheral glucose uptake(insulin sensitivity)

desirable effects of which drug: 􀂀 dec. gluconeogenesis, inc. glycolysis, inc. peripheral glucose uptake(insulin sensitivity)

Metformin

Clinical use of Metformin:

First-line therapy intype 2 DM.




Can be used in patientswithout islet function

clinical use of which drug: First-line therapy intype 2 DM

metformin

Adverse effects of metformin:

GI upset; most seriousadverse effect islactic acidosis (thuscontraindicated in renalfailure).

adverse effects of which drug: GI upset; most seriousadverse effect islactic acidosis (thuscontraindicated in renalfailure).

Metformin

First generation sulfonylureas:

Tolbutamide, Chlorpropamide

Second generation sulfonylureas:

Glyburide, Glimepiride, Glipizide

class of Glipizide

Second generation sulfonylurea

class of glimepiride

Second generation sulfonylurea

class of Glyburide

Second generation sulfonylurea

class of Tolbutamide

first generation sulfonylurea

class of chlorpropamide

first generation sulfonylurea

MOA of sulfonylureas:

Close K+ channel in beta-cellmembrane, so cell depolarizes-> triggering of insulin release via inc. Ca2+ influx.

MOA of which drug: Close K+ channel in beta-cell membrane, so cell depolarizes -> triggering of insulin release via inc. Ca2+ influx.

sulfonylurea

name the five sulfonylureas:

First Gen: TolbutamideChlorpropamide


Second Gen: GlyburideGlimepirideGlipizide

Clinical use of sulfonylureas:

Stimulate release of endogenous insulin in type 2 DM

which drugs' clinical use Stimulate release of endogenous insulin in type 2 DM

sulfonylureas

difference between 1st and 2nd gen sulfonylureas:

difference adv. effects:




First generation : disulfiram likeeffects.




Second generation :hypoglycaemia

adverse effects of tolbutamide and chlorpropamide:

1st gen sulfonylureas: disulfiram likeeffects.

adverse effects of GlyburideGlimepirideGlipizide:

2nd gen sulfonylureas: hypoglycaemia.

which drugs' adverse effects: disulfiram like effects:

1st gen sulfonylureas

which drugs' adverse effects: hypoglycaemia

2nd gen sulfonylureas

another name for glitazones:

thiazolidinediones

another name for thiazolidinediones:

glitazones

class of Pioglitazone:

thiazolideniones. aka glitazones

class of rosiglitazone:

thiazolidinediones aka glitazones

name the thiazolideniones:

Pioglitazone, Rosiglitazone

MOA of the glitazones:

Pioglitazone and Rosiglitazone:


inc. insulin sensitivity in peripheraltissue. Binds to PPAR-gamma nucleartranscription regulator...


(Genes activated by PPAR-gamma regulate fatty acid storage and glucose metabolism. Activation of PPAR-gamma inc. insulin sensitivity andlevels of adiponectin)

MOA of which drugs: inc. insulin sensitivity in peripheraltissue. Binds to PPAR-gamama nucleartranscription regulator

glitazones: Pioglitazone and Rosiglitazone

clinical use of pioglitazone/rosiglitazone:

Used as monotherapy in type2 DM or combined withabove agents

adverse effects of the glitazones:

Weight gain, edema, Hepatotoxicity, heart failure

adverse effects of which drugs: Weight gain, edema, Hepatotoxicity, heart failure

PioglitazoneRosiglitazone

name the alpha-glucosidaseinhibitors:

Acarbose, Miglitol

class of Acarbose:

alpha-glucosidase inhibitor

class of Miglitol:

alpha-glucosidase inhibitor

MOA of acarbose and miglitol:

alpha-glucosidase inhibitors:




Inhibit intestinal brush-borderalpha-glucosidases.Delayed sugar hydrolysisand glucose absorption-> dec. 􀂀 postprandial hyperglycemia

MOA of which drugs: Inhibit intestinal brush-border alpha-glucosidases. Delayed sugar hydrolysis and glucose absorption -> dec. 􀂀 postprandial hyperglycemia.

acarbose and miglitol

clinical use of acarbose and miglitol:

alpha-glucosidaseinhibitors: Used as monotherapy in type2 DM or combined withabove agents.

adverse effects of acarbose and miglitol:

GI disturbances

adverse effects of which drug: GI disturbances:

acarbose and miglitol

name the amylin analogs:

Pramlintide

class of Pramlintide:

amylin analog

MOA of pramlintide:

Dec. glucagon

MOA of which drug: dec. glucagon

amylin analog: pramlintide

clinical use of pramlintide:

Type l and type 2 DM.

clinical use of which drug: Type l and type 2 DM.

pramlintide: the amylin analog.

adverse effects of pramlintide:

Hypoglycemia,nausea, diarrhea

adverse effects of which drug: Hypoglycemia,nausea, diarrhea

pramlintide

name the GLP-1 analogs:

Exenatide, Liraglutide

class of Exenatide:

GLP-1 analog

class of Liraglutide

GLP-1 analog

MOA of GLP-1 analogs:

inc. insulin dec. glucagon release

MOA of which drugs: inc. insulin dec. glucagon release:

GLP-1 analogs: ExenatideLiraglutide


DPP-4 inhibitors: Linagliptin, Saxagliptin, Sitagliptin

clinical use of Exenatide, Liraglutide:

Type 2 DM.

Adverse effects ofExenatide, Liraglutide:

Nausea, vomiting;pancreatitis

Adverse effects of which drugs: Nausea, vomiting;pancreatitis

GLP-1 analogs: Exenatide, Liraglutide

name the DPP-4 inhibitors:

Linagliptin, Saxagliptin, Sitagliptin

MOA of Linagliptin, Saxagliptin, Sitagliptin:

DPP-4 inhibitors: inc. insulin, dec. glucose

clinical use of DPP-4 inhibitors:

Linagliptin, Saxagliptin, Sitagliptin:




T2DM

adverse effects of which drugs: Mild urinary or respiratoryinfections

DPP-4 inhibitors: Linagliptin, Saxagliptin, Sitagliptin:

adverse effects of Linagliptin, Saxagliptin, Sitagliptin:

DPP-4 inhibitors: Mild urinary or respiratoryinfections.

MOA of propylthiouracil:

Block peroxidase, thereby inhibiting organification of iodide and coupling of thyroid hormonesynthesis.




Propylthiouracil also blocks 5 '-deiodinase, which 􀂀peripheral conversion of T4 to T3 .

MOA of methimazole:

Block peroxidase, thereby inhibiting organification of iodide and coupling of thyroid hormone synthesis.




doesn't have PTU's effect of inhibiting 5'-deiodionase peripherally

Clinical use of which drugs: hyperthyroidism

Propylthiouracil. methimazole

clinical use of Propylthiouracil. methimazole:

hyperthyroidism

adverse effects of Propylthiouracil:

Skin rash, agranulocytosis (rare), aplastic anemia, hepatotoxicity propylthiouracil

adverse effects of methimazole:

Skin rash, agranulocytosis (rare), aplastic anemia, possible teratogen

adverse effects of which drug specifically: Skin rash, agranulocytosis (rare), aplastic anemia, hepatotoxicity

propylthiouracil

adverse effects of which drug specifically: Skin rash, agranulocytosis (rare), aplastic anemia, possible teratogen

methimazole

MOA of Levothyroxine, triiodothyronine:

Thyroxine replacement

Clinical use of Levothyroxine, triiodothyronine

Hypothyroidism, myxedema.

MOA of which drug: thyroxine replacement:

Levothyroxine, triiodothyronine

clinical use of which drugs: Hypothyroidism, myxedema

Levothyroxine, triiodothyronine

adverse effects of which drugs: Tachycardia, heat intolerance, tremors, arrhythmias

Levothyroxine. triiodothyronine

adverse effects of Levothyroxine. triiodothyronine

Tachycardia, heat intolerance, tremors, arrhythmias.

Clinical use of which drug: GH deficiency, Turner syndrome.

GH

Clinical use of GH:

GH deficiency, Turner syndrome.

Clinical use of Somatostatin/Octreotide:

Acromegaly, carcinoid, gastrinoma, glucagonoma, esophageal varices

Clinical use of which drug: Acromegaly, carcinoid, gastrinoma, glucagonoma, esophageal varices

Somatostatin/Octreotide

Clinical use of which drug: Stimulates labor, uterine contractions, milk let-down; controls uterine hemorrhage

Oxytocin

Clinical use of Oxytocin:

Stimulates labor, uterine contractions, milk let-down; controls uterine hemorrhage

clinical use of which drug: Central Diabetes Insipidus

ADH/Desmopressin

clinical use of ADH/Desmopressin:

Central Diabetes Insipidus

MOA of Demeclocycline:

ADH antagonist (member of the tetracycline family)

MOA of which drug: ADH antagonist

Demeclocycline

Clinical use of Demeclocycline:

SIADH

Clinical use of which drug: SIADH

Demeclocycline (ADH Antag.)

adverse effects of Demeclocycline:

Nephrogenic DI, photosensitivity, abnormalities of bone and teeth (tetracycline)

name the glucocorticoids:

Hydrocortisone, prednisone, triamcinolone, dexamethasone, beclomethasone

class of hydrocortisone

glucocorticoid

class of prednisone

glucocorticoid

class of triamcinolone

glucocorticoid

class of dexamethasone

glucocorticoid

class of beclomethosone

glucocorticoid

MOA of glucocorticoids:

􀂀 dec. production of leukotrienes and prostaglandins by inhibiting phospholipase A2 and expressionof COX-2

clinical use of glucocorticoids:

Addison's disease, inflammation, immune suppression, asthma

clinical use of which drugs: Addison's disease, inflammation, immune suppression, asthma.

glucocorticoids

adverse effects of glucocorticoids:

Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome -buffalo hump, moon facies, truncal obesity, muscle wasting, thinskin, easy bruisability, osteoporosis, adrenocortical atrophy, peptic ulcers, diabetes (if chronic).




Adrenal insufficiency when drug stopped abruptly after chronic use.

adverse effects of which drugs: Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome -buffalo hump, moon facies, truncal obesity, muscle wasting, thinskin, easy bruisability, osteoporosis, adrenocortical atrophy, peptic ulcers, diabetes

glucocorticoids: Hydrocortisone, prednisone, triamcinolone, dexamethasone, beclomethasone