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82 Cards in this Set

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Which first two of seven statements uniquely characterize the British revolution

1. Theonset of a fundamental change in the structure of an economy—a fundamentalredeployment of resources away from agriculture—becoming self-evident overtime.

2.Theexpansion of industrial production at a higher and sustained rate than outputas a whole.

Which third and fourth and fifth of seven statements uniquely characterize the british revolution

3. A take-off into self-sustained growth.

4.A process that began between the 1740s and the1780s

5. The threat of mass starvation has been unknownin Britain since the industrial revolution.

What last two of seven statement uniquely characterize the british revolution

6. Themain characteristic of growth in eighteenth-century and earlynineteenth-century Britain was moderation.

7. Britain’sfavorable resource position, particularly in energy resources and particularlyin relation to existing methods of transport.

which 1/2 of 7 statements characterize the state and economic development are false

3.Englandbecame a high tariff country at the end of the seventeenth century more becauseof ‘protectionism’ than because of revenue demands.

6. Agricultural protection was designed more in theinterest of farmers than landowners

which 3/4 of 7 statements characterize the state and economic development are false

12. As far as central government levies wereconcerned, Britain was less heavily taxed than France.

14. The Napoleonic Wars cost Britain £100million directly in military expenditure.

Which 5/6/7 of 7 statements characterize the state and economic development are false

16. London grew rapidly during the NapoleonicWars.

19. War and military spending were veryproductive in innovations during this period.

21.The impact of government can be judged simplyaccording to the extent of the financial resources engaged.

Whichstatement below is FALSE organization ?

During the eighteenth century falling transportcosts meant that industry was no longer located near coal mines

Which two statements are false industry and innovation

3. By1800 50 per cent of total non-animate horse power was being supplied by steamengines and 50 per cent by water and wind power.

9. Theindustrial revolution destroyed more skills than it created.

Capital AccumulationWhich statement belowis FALSE
In1760, a London brewery that was among the largest factory plants in the land,had more than three-quarters of its assets tied up as fixed capital.
The EntrepreneursWhichstatement below is FALSE?
By 1800 large-scale manufacturing was typical ofthe industrial economy.
The HumanDimension—Standards of LivingWhich two statements below are FALSE?
Throughto the mid-nineteenth century, the standard of living rose in Ireland as fastas it did in Britain.

9. Real wages of London artisans rose byabout a quarter during the French wars.

The Organizationof Labour and Standards of Living—Standards of Life, 1850-1914Which three statements below are FALSE?
7. Money wages dropped appreciably in badtimes.

12. Home-produced products, such as milk,also fell in price, as did meat prices.

15. The increase in real wages was allabsorbed in a wave of food buying.

Jan de vries argues that households

worked more and worked harder in the course of the long eighteenth century

Jan de Vries argues that households members were motivated in their industrious behavior

more by new consumption aspirations than by bitter necessity

In the 1960s Ester Boserup described how population growth

is the catalyst for the introduction of new agrarian techniques leading to intensified land use

the term industrious revolution was coined by akira hitami who used to describe what city

tokugawa, japan

The key to achieving total productivity growth before the nineteenth century was found in

They stagnated during the wars with France, 1793-1815

They rose in each decade from the 1820 through the 1890s

The concept of the industrious revolution require us to shift our attention from the daily wages of indivduals to the annual earnings of households, and our focus from the wage rate to

the number of days of paid employment per year

the participation of wives and children in market oriented labor

the intensity of work effort

Most estimates of the number of days officially available for work at the end of the fifteenth century are in the

250-260 range

in most western countries, the five day work week was introduced during the


Engel's law states that as incomes rise, the proportion of income spent on food


which category of european population rose steadily between 1500 and 1800 but fell rapidly during the nineteenth century

rural no agricultural

the growth of which factors facilitated an intesified commitment of rural household labor time to the market?

Agricultural specialization


womens participation in the manufacture of clothing and shop keeping

The average height attained by the generations who grew to adulthood declined in the 1780-1840 period. which explnation does jan de vries prefer?

the increased energy expenditure that accompanied intensified work effort

in contrast to the industrious revolution model offered by Jan de vries the economic historian Robert W. Fogel prefers the explanation that

workers found themselves too malnourished to contemplate the choice of more goods or more leisure

Was the change in consumer demand described by de Vries a transatlantic phenomenom

yes it embraced the north american seaboard

Which trend would tend to reduce the value o stocks of consumer durable recorded in probate inventories?

a shift towards goods that depreciate quickly because of their materials and their embodied fashions

in the seventeenth century the primary sources of lighting oil were vegatable oils and

whale oil

calico originated in


By the 1790s which beverage did Europeans consume more?


Which colonial grocery originated in the Americas


The single largest category of total british tax receipts in this fiscal regime were

excise taxes

Did credit feature prominently in industrious consumerism?

yes credit features prominently in industrious consumerism

A first and obvious character of preindusatrial economics was the primacy of agriculture

A large majority of the population of Europe was working on and living off the land

By the 1780's, the only exceptions were Holland and Britain, where only half the population was employed in farming

Industry remained closely linked to agriculture, which supplied most of its raw materials

A second and basic character of preindustrial economics was their low labor preductivity choose three

Labor was generally unskilled and uneducated

Labor was often unable to work properly due to the undernourishment

Traditional agriculture did not give work for more than half the year at best

Which statement about European agriculture is false

labor productivity didn't improve any faster in england

for the most part peasants were



unable and unwilling to improve tiny farms

most times, mercantilist policies were


clearly counterproductive

in the 18th century, government policies became more


When adam smith wrote his powerful critique of mercantilism that appeared in the wealth of nations

mercantilism in Britain was already in decline and the industrial revolution was beginning

Adam smith argued against protectionaism

but defended the navigation acts

Free trade triumphed most completely in


the case of free trade was linked to the cause of peace and advocated of free trade were also proponents of


who argued that was between european countries would be entirely futile, making militarism obsolete

Norman Angell

The sugar duties act of 1846

gradually repealed the higher tariff on slave grown sugar from cuba and brazil

the Zollverein, the UK system of imperial preference and the european union are all examples of

custom unions

who was for the most part a free trader was willing to use tariffs as an inferior, short lived expedient to remedy macroeconmic ills as opposed to doing nothing at?

John Maynard Keynes

The UK finally introduced a system if imperial preference

in 1932

The neolithic revolution began as far back as

11,000 years ago in Fertile Crescent

Which statement below is false?

the bronze age characterized societies in every part of the world

When was the true writing of language first invented?

3200 BCE

Where was the true writing language first invented


Jack goody asserts that the character of kinship groups probably has

little effect on population variables

JAck goody wrote the Eurasian Miracle as rejoinder who argues there was

a European miracle

In which country did printing, gun powder, and the compass originated


According to the historian Lynn white when Europe seize global scietific leadership

the late 13th century, late 1200s

In the great divergence, Kenneth Pomeranz

England and Yangzi Delta

Kenneth Pomeranz asserts that the great divergence between china and europe began about


according to pomeranz, which two factors caused the industrial revolution to begin england?

accessible depoists of coal and iron, and military fiscalism

1. Which was the fastest growing sector ineighteenth-century Britain?
governmentand defense-J

Smithian growth and Promethean growth can andsometimes do occur simultaneously in history. What was characteristic of Britain during the Industrial Revolution,i.e., 1760-1850? >

Both types of growth occurred.
When the Industrial Revolution began, how didBritain compare with continental Europe?ment
Real wages were relatively high, energy wasrelatively cheap
Alarge majority of British inventors came from
a middle-class background
Which statement about the British economy on theeve of the Industrial Revolution is FALSE?
Foreigntrade was free of tariffs and other restrictions.
British government efforts to check the outflowof technicians and machinery during the Industrial Revolution were
increasingly unsuccessful

Which statement about the population ofManchester in the early nineteenth century is flase

The population grew more slowly than the ruralpopulation surrounding Manchester.
Which was the most urbanized society in Europeby the mid-nineteenth century
Great Britain
In 1914 London was NOT (choose one)>
the most densely populated city in the world
In 1914 the average Briton (choose one
earned the highest real wage and enjoyed thehighest standard of living in Europe
According to E. G. West, prior to the Forster Elementary Education Act 1870, which required partiallystate-funded board schools to be set up in areas where existing provision was inadequate, school attendanceand literacy rates were
above 90 per cent
According to Davis and Huttenback’s Mammon and the Pursuit of Empire: ThePolitical Economy of British Imperialism, 1860-1912 (1986)
the empire was a net drain on the domesticeconomy
The European population
began growing before the industrial revolution
Smithian growth and Promethean growth can andsometimes do occur simultaneously in history. What was characteristic of continental Europe during the nineteenthcentury through 1914?
Bothtypes of growth occurred.&

The first region of continental Europe to adoptfully the British model of industrialization was

Thealliance between “iron and rye” refers to the coalition between
industry and agriculture in Germany&
Which country ceased to be a net exporter ofgrain during the course of the nineteenth century?

By the 1840s which country was the third largestEuropean producer of cotton goods (after Britain and France)?

Of five countries that were latecomers toindustrialization, the earliest to industrialize was


Hydro-electricity was particularly important in
Norway, Sweden and Switzerland

In nineteenth-century Europe all railway systemswere

subject to at least some degree of statesupervision
At the beginning of the twentieth century whichcountry ranked second in the world (after the United States) in petroleumproduction?
Which phenomenon did NOT occur during the period1870-1914?
the decline of state intervention in the economy