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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
enzyme that phosphorylates glucose in most tissues

what is the resulting compound?

in what organs does glucokinase substitute for hexokinase?

what is the difference between them?
liver, beta cells of pancreas, intestines

glucokinase has a lower affinity for glucose, so these cells only use glucose when it is in high concentrations in the body
what is the most important regulatory enzyme in glycolysis

phosphofructokinase (PFK-1)

it catalyzes the committed step in glycolysis
what do kinases do?

what do phosphatases do?

enzyme that catalyzes the final step in glycolysis

what is produced?
pyruvate kinase

what is the last step of glycolysis
phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to pyruvate via pyruvate kinase
what step of glycolysis produces 4 ATPs per molecule of glucose?
PEP to pyruvate (the last step)
what enzymes catalyze the steps of glycolysis that use up 1 ATP each?
hexokinase/glucokinase and PFK-1
hexokinase is inhibited by ____

glucokinase is inhibited by ____

allosteric inhibitor of PFK-1
ATP (with the help of citrate)
potent activator of PFK-1

how is this activator formed
fructose 2,6-bisphosphate

it is formed from F6P via PFK-2
effect of glucagon on glycolysis

when does this occur?
via cAMP-dependent protein kinase, triggers phosphorylation of PKF-2, which reduces the enzyme's activity

this occurs when blood glucose is low
the common pathway for the metabolism of all fuels
citric acid cycle
purposes of the citric acid cycle
to produce substrates for the electron transport chain as well as precursors for various biosynthetic pathways
4 key enzymes in the regulation of the citric acid cycle
pyruvate dehydrogenase
citrate synthase
isocitrate dehydrogenase
alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
the activity of the citric acid cycle depends on the availability of ___ for several of the dehydrogenases
the amount of NAD+ available for the citric acid cycle is related to ____
the rate of NADH consumption in the process of oxidative phosphorylation
what enzyme is responsible for creating acetyl CoA
pyruvate dehydrogenase
what 4 groups of molecules allosterically inhibit PDH

what other enzyme do they activate, and what is it's function?
NADH, acetyl CoA, ATP, and fatty acids

they stimulate PDH kinase, which phosphorylates PDH, reducing its activity
electrolyte that activates PDH phosphatase in muscle

what is it's effect?

restores the activity of PDH, stimulating the citric acid cycle
molecules that that activate PDH phosphatase (4)
Ca2+, AMP, CoA, and NAD+
effect that insulin has on the citric acid cycle
stimulates PDH via activation of PDH phosphatase (when glucose is abundant)
citrate synthase activity is limited by the availability of ___ and ___
oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA
two enzymes of the citric acid cycle that are inhibited by NADH

in muscle, however, ___ activates these enzymes
isocitrate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

two enzymes of the citric acid cycle that are inhibited by ATP
citrate synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase
what form of pyruvate kinase is the active one?

when is this form more prominent?
dephosphorylated pyruvate kinase

more prominent w/ high blood glucose level