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26 Cards in this Set

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How does food move through the GI tract?

Mouth->phraynx->oesophagus->stomach>small intestine>large intestine

What role does the mouth play in digestion?

mechanical role- chewing food allows it to mix with saliva to break down food

What role does the oesophagus play in digestion?

Muscular tube that carries food from mouth to stomach

How does the stomach aid digestion?

site of food storage, mixes food and liquid with digestive juice


Food is converted into a fluid called CHYME which is expelled as vomit

What are the features and functions of the stomach wall?

Has external layer of muscle in muscularis externa


Rugae=allow stomach to stretch


Has epithelial in folds called GASTRIC PITS which secrete gastric juices

What role does the small intestine play in digestion?

Major digestive and absorptive organ where all the nutrients from food get absorbed.


- muscles of small intestine mix food with digestive juices from pancreas and liver to push digestion further down

What role does the large intestine play in digestion?

large intestine absorbs water and any remaining nutrients and changes waste from liquid to stools

How do digestive juices in each organ of the GI tract break down food?

Digestive juices contain enzymes- substances that speed up chemical reaction in the body


-breaks food down into nutrients

What accessory structures aid the GI tract?

salivary glands, liver, pancreas, glands in stomach lining

What do the salivary glands do?

produces saliva so food moves easily through oesophagus

What is the outer layer that makes up the GI tract?

1. Serosa or adventitia

What is the middle layer which is made up of smooth muscle?

Muscularis externa

What is the third innermost layer made up of dense connective tissue?

Submucosa

What is the innermost layer of the GI tract?

Mucosa

What is the function of the peritoneum?

Provides serous membrane protective bubble that lines the abdominal organs

What are the features of the peritoneum?

visceral peritoneum (lines digestive organs)


parietal peritoneum (lines body wall)


mesentary peritoneum (links parietal and visceral peritoneum)

Where is the peritoneum located?

Serous membrane that lines abdominal cavity and most of intrabdominal organs

What is the epiglottis?

cartilage behind root of tongue- covers larynx when food is swallowed to stop food getting into windpipe

What is a gastric pit?

Indentations in the stomach that secrete gastric juices

What is the relationship between the gastric pit and pepsinogen?

Hydrochloric acid is released from parietal cells in stomach lining-HI acid provides acidic environment for pepsinogen which activates the active form pepsin

What are the three basic subdivisions of the smallintestines called?

Duedenum,Jejunum,Ileum

Whatis the livers role in the GIT?

Processes nutrients from small intestine, produces digestive juice called bile

What is the function of bile?

aids digestion by absorbing fats from foods

What is the role of pancreas in digestion?

produces juice containing several enzyme s that break down carbs,fats & proteins in food


-delivers digestive juice to small intestine through small tubes called ducts

What purpose do villi and microvilli serve?

tiny structures that cover walls of small intestines, help to absorb nutrients

What is an enzyme?

Proteins that control the speed of chemical reactions in the body