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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who influenced Friedmann?
Hymer (1972) who coined the term ‘world city’,

Urban hierarchy and MNCs making high-end corporate decision-making (& controlling flow)
What are the prominent features of Friedmann's WC hypothesis?
How cities are directly connected to the world economy

HQs of TNCs and MNCs

Forms a hierarchy of world cities: core primary and secondary; Semi peripherary primary and semi-periphery sexondary
What does Friedmann say HQs do?
Carry out functions (finance, control national economy)

Concentration and accumulation of capital through HQs

Control reflected in structure and dynamics of production and employment
Who influenced Sassen?
Cohen: agglomeration of APS firms
What are the key features of Sassen's global cities?
Agglomeration of APS and key international functions

Post Weberian manoeuvre (same cities, different emphasis)

By definition there can only be a handful of GC
Why does Sassen say there is a need for centres to control?
Dispersal and ICT
What is the key difference between Sassen and Friedmann?
Sassen: GC as command and control and focus on practices within

Friedmann: focus on power and control of institutions in the formation of world cities

Sassen rejects functionalism of Friedmann
What is similar with Sassen and Friedmann?
Both Neo-Marxists explanations
What are Friedmann's global city indicators?
Financial Centre

HQ of TNCs

International institutions

Rapid growth of business centres

Important manufacturing centre

Major transport node

Population size
What does Friedmann's argument depend upon?
The reliability of the international capital dominance by TNCs
What role does capital take in the city?
Deterministic role, focus on capital for the definition

Economistic (hoarding money, concentration wealth)

Functionalist (serve and ease global capital)
What s Friedmann missing about control in the city?
Mechanisms by which cities are controlled

Assertion with no evidence that WC are HQ for corporations and banks
Where does Friedmann say there are a disproportionate amount of HQs?
London, New York, Tokyo, Paris
What did Friedmann create?
New geography fo centrality and marginality- cut across north and south and east and west divide
What does Sassen (1991) say of the core?
Increasingly core

Peripheral icnreasingly peripheral
How do APS firms skew the US/UK economy?
Finance and servicing globalisation are geographically located around certain places

Neo Marxist like skew- show need for coordination and communication
What does Sassen say NY, London and Tokyo emphasise?
Financial and commercial and service production and innovations
What does the territorial dispersal of modern economic activities create?
Need for control. coordination and command in cities

Explain why commercial and financial functions concentrated here
How did Sassen influence BST (1999; 2000)?
Caused them to focus on 4 key types of firms

Cities evaluated as global service centres in these sectors

Aggregation provides a measure of a city's global capacity