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49 Cards in this Set

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Audism

-Term was invented in 1975


-"AUD" is the ability to hear and "ism" is discrimination


-the term didnt last long but came back in the 80s


-it is now an established term in the deaf world


Hallmarks of Culture

-Language


-History


-Art


-Customs


-Cultural Players

Laurent Clerc

-a Deaf teacher recruited from France in 1815


- cofounded the American School for the Deaf in Heartford, Conneticut with his benefactor Thomas Gallaudet


Halmarks of Culture: Language

-language enables people in the community to have an effective communication system—the ultimate bond that holds them together


-language gives community members a way to express specific feelings, thoughts, and ideas, which is crucial to their survival and therefore is essential for effective living

Hallmarks of culture: heritage

-provides a historical perspective as to why people subscribe to certain belief systems and behave in specific ways. Arts reflect the soul of the culture. Customs dictate the rules of behavior and are grounded in historical

Hallmarks of culture: Arts

Reflects the soul of the culture

Hallmarks of culture: Customs

-dictate the rules of behavior and are grounded in historical applications

Hallmarks of Culture: Family

-ones who transmit those values from one generation to the next, providing the newer members of the community with access to the historically created solutions for effective living.

Language in Deaf Culture

-Having access to a visual language is the main reason why deaf schools were established in the United States in the 1800s, why Deaf organizations came into existence, and why Deaf people continue to congregate despite increased tolerance, acceptance, and respect accorded them in mainstream society

Customs in Deaf Culture

-lengthy and formal ritual of leave-taking (ending a conversation) can be traced to the days when Deaf people did not have an easy way to keep in contact with each other

Arts in Deaf Culture

-Dealing with oppression and the ignorance of hearing people are common experiences of deaf people and are therefore often reflected as the focus of Deaf art. Additionally, the beauty of ASL and the pride of being Deaf are other themes that are often portrayed through the arts.


"Family" in Deaf culture

Deaf people need to seek cultural players outside the family in order to gain access to those solutions for effective living as Deaf individuals that have been devised by generations of their Deaf predecessors

Culture vs Community


- what is community

-Typically perceived as a group of people who happen to reside in a similar geographical location, whether it be an apartment community, a master-planned community, a neighborhood, a city, or a region.


-community could also be formed by individuals who share similar goals and/or common interests.

Surface elements of a culture

-people often think of visible, surface elements of a culture such as language, food, and clothes. Yet, a culture consists of much more than what is visible or tangible


-example: ASL

Deeper elements of culture

customs, social etiquette, and conversational discourse


-example: oversharing in the deaf community

Collective culture

-goals of the community supersede individuals’ rights and personal opinions.


-expected to conform to the expectations of the community


-protecting the reputation of the community is of utmost importance, and each member of the community has the responsibility not to project a negative image



-Inside collectivist cultures is a deeply held insider/outsider distinction that makes it important for people to clearly identify their connections to the community

Individualistic culture

- success of the community depends on contributions made by individuals.



-each member to participate in and belong to the community are of utmost importance

Collective nature of the Deaf community

-People are expected to be fiercely loyal to the Deaf community, be actively involved in community affairs, and spend most of their social time with Deaf friends and at community event


-sharing information is an important hallmark of the Deaf community, just as it is in most collectivist cultures.

Differences between american and deaf culture

-Independence is an important value in America


-Although Deaf Americans share those values of independence and self-reliance, they also value mutual dependence as a way of survival


Who are the Deaf people

-17% of the population, or 36 million people in the United States can be classified “hearing impaired

The 90% Formula

most deaf people are born to hearing parents and have hearing children of their own


-more than 90% of deaf people are born to hearing parents, with recent studies showing the figure to be close to 95%


-90% of hearing parents are unable to communicate efficiently with their deaf child


-90% of deaf children are unable to achieve intelligible speech



-proposed by Dr. Jerome Schein in 1989.

Influence of deaf culture

-Deaf way” (of living) on that family usually lasts only three generations, affecting the Deaf individual, his or her parents, and his or her children


-Deaf children from Deaf families tend to be ranked superior to those from hearing families in all areas of development, including academics, personal and social development, language acquisition in both English and ASL, communication skills, and career aspirations

Membership in the deaf culture

1980, Baker-Shenk and Cokely proposed a model illustrating four domains that Deaf people must satisfy in order to achieve a comfortable place in the Deaf community. In their diagram, they included audiological, linguistic, political, and social requirements for full membership in the Deaf community.

Rochester Method

-fingerspelling as the only form of communication


-Louisiana School of the Deaf, last school to give up the R. M.


-

When was ASL introduced to U.S. America?

-1816 by a Deaf teacher who was recruited from france

Avenues of membership found on pg 43

Common labels

-Hearing impaired


-Deaf


-Hard of hearing


-Hearing


-Hearing-but


Hearing impaired

-1970s, the disabled community attempted to eradicate negative connotations associated with disabled people in general by changing the common terms of usage.


-replace the word deaf with a new term, “hearing-impaired.”


-The Deaf community however, never accepted this artificially created, seemingly politically correct term



both the World Federation of the Deaf (WFD) and the International Federation of Hard of Hearing People (IFDHHP) formally rejected this label over 20 years ago

Deaf

-general public’s perception of deaf people revolves around their inability to hear and the “isolation” of the deaf individual, this is not how Deaf people perceive themselves


-For Deaf people, the central component of their identity is the use of sign language.


James Woodward

-In recognition of the cultural experiences of Deaf people and the academic community’s need to clearly identify this segment of the Deaf population he became the first scholar to propose the use of the capital D

Hard of Hearing

-frequently used in the Deaf community to describe those who have some use of their residual hearing, the actual meaning of this term is vague


-

Hearing

Deaf community frequently uses this term ” to describe people who are not deaf or hard of hearing


or hard of hearing


“hearing” is not just a category of people who hear, but is rather a term used by Deaf people to identify those who are the opposite of who they are.

Hearing-but

-label is designated for hearing people who have exhibited an extraordinarily positive attitude toward Deaf people and a deep respect for Deaf culture in general.


Acceptable terms/labels

Deaf


Hard of hearing


Late-deafened

Unacceptable terms/labels

Deafies


Deaf and dumb


Late-deafened


Deaf mute


Dummy


Hearing challenged


Hearing disabled


Hearing handicapped


Individual with deafness


Stone deaf

Identity formation in the deaf world

‘Deaf’ asserts a state of being that reflects completeness


-Deaf identity means a rewarding and full life centered on “wellness and a non-disabled self-schema”


Catergories of deaf identities

balanced bicultural, Deaf dominant bicultural, hearing dominant bicultural, culturally separate, culturally marginal, culturally isolated, and culturally captive.

Balanced bicultural Deaf people

individuals who are truly comfortable in both the Deaf and hearing communities.

Deaf dominant bicultural

individuals function well around both Deaf and hearing people but, if given a choice, they would choose to be with Deaf people or, more specifically, people who can sign.


Hearing dominant bicultural deaf people

individuals who can function well within the Deaf community, but who, for one reason or another, have relatively limited contacts with other Deaf people.

culturally separate Deaf person

someone who intentionally keeps contacts with hearing people to a minimum.


culturally marginal individual

does not feel at ease in the Deaf community, but does not feel part of the larger, hearing society either. Perhaps this person does not speak or hear well enough to function comfortably among hearing people and, at the same time, does not possess sufficient sign language skills to fit into the Deaf community.

culturally isolated individual

chooses not to be affiliated with the Deaf community.


culturally captive.

unaware of the educational opportunities that exist for deaf people,


-unaware of the educational opportunities that exist for deaf people,


individuals who grew up without any knowledge of the Deaf community.

STAGES OF CULTURAL AWARENESS

The five stages are: conformity, dissonance, resistance and immersion, introspection and awareness, and these will be examined in the context of the Deaf experience.

There are 5

Stage of cultural awareness: conformity

authors believe that many members of oppressed groups spend years growing up trying to conform to society’s expectations of their disenfranchised community. Unfortunately, those views are routinely negative and derogatory.

Stage of cultural awareness: dissonance stage

which the person is exposed to the positive aspects of the stigmatized community for the first time, which triggers a reevaluation of his or her affiliation with this group of people.


Stage of cultural awareness: resistance and immersion,

individuals from disenfranchised groups become determined to learn more about their cultural identity. They attempt to associate with people from their culture as much as possible.


-during this stage, these individuals often become angry at the deception they were previously led to believe about others like them.


Stages of cultural awareness: introspection stage

Individuals begin to reexamine the extreme stance they may have adopted in the previous stage. They realize that their effort to be as Deaf possible does not always result in a positive outcome. They recognize that their parents might have had good intentions at the same time they were making their identity formation such a difficult process.