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43 Cards in this Set

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Institution intended to punish criminals by isolating them from society and from one another so they can reflect on their past misdeeds

Separate Confinement

Penitentiary System in which each inmate was held in isolation from other inmates. All activities including craft work took place in the cells

Congregate System

Penitentiary System in which each inmate was held in isolation during the night but worked and ate with other prisoners during the day under a rule of silence

Contract Labor System

Inmate's labor was sold on a conctractual basis to private employers who provided the machinery and raw materials with which inmates made salable prodicts in the institution

Lease System

Inmates were leased to contractors who provided prisoners with food and clothing in exchange for their labor


Institution for young offenders that emphasizes training, a mark system of classification, indeterminate sentences, and parole

Mark System

Point system in which prisoners can redice their term of imprisonment and gain release by earning "marks" or points through labor, good behavior and educational achievement

Rehabilitation Model

Emphasizes the need to restore a convicted offender to a constructive place in society through some form of vocational or educational training or therapy

Medical Model

Based on the assumption that criminal behavior is caused by biological and psychological condition that require treatment

Community Corrections

Based on the goal of reintegrating the offender into the community

Crime Control Model of Correcitons

Model of corrections based on the assumption that criminal behavior can be controlled by more use of incarceration and other forms of strict supervision


Institution for the incarceration of people convicted of serious crimes, usually felonies


Institution authorized to hold pretrial detainees and sentenced misdemeanants for periods longer than 48 hours

Hands-off Policy

Judges should not interfer with the administration of correctional instututions

Cooper v. Pate

Prisoners are entitled to the protection of the Civil Rights Act of 1871 and may challenge in federal courts the conditions of their confinement

Hudson v. Palmer

Prison officials have the authority to search cells and confiscate any materials found

Wolf v. McDonnell

Basic elements of procedural due process must e present when decisions are made about imposing significant punishments on prisoners for violating institutional rules

Marrissey v. Brewer

Due process rights require a prompt, informal, two-stage inquiry before an impartial hearing officer before parole may be revoked. The parolee may present relevant information and confront witnesses

Gagnon v. Scarpelli

Before probation can be revoked, a two-stage hearing must be held and the offender provided with specific elements of due process. Requested counsel will be allowed on a case-by-case basis

Custodial Model of Incarceration

Emphasizes security, discipline, and order

Rehabilitation Model of Incarceration

Emphasizes treatment programs to help prisoners address the personal problems and issues that led them to commit crimes

Reintegration Model of Incarceration

Emphasizes maintaining the offender's ties to family and community as a method of reform, recognizing that the offender will be returning to society

Inmate Code

Values and norms of the prison social system that define the inmates' idea of the model prisoner

Doing Time

View prison term as breif, inevitable break in their criminal careers, a cost of doing business


Take advantage of prison programs in order to better themselves


Those who cut themselves off from the outside and try to construct a life within the prison


Process of assigning an inmate to a category specifying his or her needs for security, treatment, and readiness for release

Parens Patriae

The state as parent; the state as guardian and protector of all citizens who cannot protect themselves

In re Gault

Juveniles have the right to counsel, to confront and examine accusers, and to have adequate notice of charges when confinement is a possible punishment

In re Winship

The standard of proof beyond a reasonable doubt applies to juvenile delinquency proceedings

McKeiver v. Pennsylvania

Juveniles do not have a constitutional right to a trial by jury

Breed v. Jones

Juveniles cannot be found delinquent in juvenile court and then transferred to adult court without a hearing on the transfer; to do so violates the protection against double jeopardy

Status Offense

Any act committed by a juvenile that is considered unacceptable for a child, such as truancy or running away from home, but that would not be a crime if it were committed by an adult

Schall v. Martin

Juveniles can be held in preventive detention if there is concern that they may commit additional crimes while awaiting court action


Procedure by which the juvenile court waives its jurisdiction and transfers a juvenile case to the adult criminal court


A child who has committed an act that if committed by an adult would be a criminal act


Persons In Need of Supervision, a term that designates juveniles who are either status offenders or thought to be on the verge of trouble

Neglected Child

Child who is recieving inadequate care because of some action or inaction of his or her parents

Dependent Child

Child who has no parent or guardian or whose parents cannot give proper care


The process of screening children out of the juvenile justice system without a decision by the court

Detention Hearing

Hearing by the juvenile court to determine if a juvenile is to be detained or released prior to adjudication


Trial stage of the juvenile justice process


Juvenile Justice equivalent of parile, in which a delinquent is released from a custodial sentence and supervised in the community