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104 Cards in this Set

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Property Crime

Makes up 3/4 of all crime and costs $20 billion

Burglary

Attempted or completed "unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or a theft"

Larceny/Theft

"unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from possession of another" (resisting a merchant; motor vehicle theft)



Fencing

Receiving of stolen goods who operates in conjunction with thieves and burglar's to dispose of those items

Johnathan Wild

Sherif known for fencing

Arson

"willful or malicious burning or attempting to burn, with or without intent to defraud, a dwelling house, public building, motor vehicle..."

Forgery/Counterfeiting

"Making with intent to defraud, anything false in the semblance of that which is true"

Fraud

Obtaining money or property by false pretenses (emails)

Embezzlement

Misappropriation or misapplication of money or property entrusted to one's care



Richard McQuillan

Jackson County, Mich. former attorney charged with embezzlement after he mis-appropriated almost $1 million from the estate of a deceased man for his own use

Burglaries make up___

23.4 % of property crimes

Avg. Loss of burglary

$2,230

___% are residential burglaries

74.5%

___% burglaries occur in the South

45%

___% houses burglarized at least once

72%

Low-Level Burglary

(Primarily juveniles) spontaneous, unskilled burglaries; dissuaded by target hardening

Middle-Range Burglary

Older; spend time looking for attractive targets; act alone; more able to defeat home burglary system

High-level Burglary

(Professional) most skilled of all, act in groups of two or more; extensive planning; willing to travel long distance to target

Target Hardening

Stronger locks, better lighting, burglar alarms, home-security, dogs, neighborhood watch, at home presence, etc.

Reasons for burglary

Fast cash (Non-conventional lifestyle); drugs

Tipsters

Give burglars info on suitable targets (attorneys, repair people, bartenders)

Fences (people)

Sell stolen goods to individuals who recognize the shady nature but what to buy goods for less

__% of property crimes are Larceny/theft

68.5%

Larceny costs avg. of:

$6.1 billion/annually (US retailers $33.6 million/year; avg. price $740)

Types of larceny

Shoplifting, pocket picking, purse snatching, MV theft (26%), car part theft (10%)



Amateur thief

young, unskilled and commit when opportunity arises and risks are low (more females, lower income households)



Situational Inducement

(Do not cause crime; rather than are occasions for crime) short run influence on a person's behavior that increases risk taking

Professional thief

Older and more skilled; plan offenses carefully (career, skills, with, financial standing)

Identity theft

Theft of a person's identity for the purpose of committing fraud (14% family/friends; social security numbers)



Motor vehicle theft

Theft/attempted theft of motor vehicle (721,053/year; $4.3 billion/year)

Joyride thief

Committed usually by teen boys who take and ride then dump it, not for profit just thrill

Profit thief

dismantle item for part in chop shop (MVT)

__% forest fires caused by arson

90% (southeast)

White collar crime

crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation

Ex. of Industrialization WC Crimes

Inhumane working conditions, bribery, kickbacks, and financial scemes

Muckrakers

Criticized business/political corruption, and condemned cruel treatment of workers

Insider trading

Equity trading based on confidential information about important events that may affect the price of the issue being traded

Bank fraud

fraud/embezzlement that occurs within or against financial institutions that are insured or regulated by the US gov.

Consumer Fraud

When a consumer of goods/services surrender their money through a misrepresentation of a material fact or through deceit

Business Opportunity Fraud

Consumer is persuaded by the perpetrator to invest money in a business that is worth less than indicated

Professional Fraud

Healthcare fraud, Financial fraud(Physicians, lawyers)

Healthcare fraud

over billing, unnecessary surgery

Financial Fraud

Insider trading

Police/political corruption

(Violations of public trust) bribes, kickbacks, extortion and blackmail

Home improvement fraud

Consumers are persuaded to pay inflated prices for home improvement

Real Estate/Land Fraud

Ponzi Scheme-Early investors are paid off with proceeds from sales to later participants

Tax fraud

Taxpayer underreported or did not report taxable income, purposely to evade payment of owed taxes



Corporation violence

Actions by corporations that cause injury, illness, and even death (bad car part, dangerous medicine)



Estimates of property crime/street crime

$17.1 billion/year

___ deaths by street crime

16,204

___ deaths from white-collar crime

113,025

Organized Crime

Piracy, and prohibition.

Volstead act

Enacted to carry out the intent of the 18th amendment which established prohibition in the US period

Alien Conspiracy Model and Myth

Myth because model history of organized crime before italian immigration (irish americans)

RICO act

Instituted by the gov, anything found part of legit business that belongs to illegal business is up to be seized

Drug

Any substance other than food which by its chemical nature affects the structure or function of a living organism

Psychoactive Drug

Any substance that affects behavior by changing mood, emotion, perception (caffeine, valium, tobacco, alcohol)

__% person have used an illegal drug at least once

46%

Most commonly used drug

heroine

2nd most used drug

Crack

3rd most used drug

Meth

Addiction

Condition in which a person becomes physically dependent on a drug and will go through withdrawals if drug use is ended

Physiological Explanation

Addiction results from some biological or physical characteristic (inherited gene)

Psychological explanation

What do drugs do FOR people rather than to them?

Alfred Lindesmith

Consistent with reinforcement perspective (pleasure vs. pain)

Personality traits

Possession of certain characteristics predisposes individuals to addiction (never satisfied, self indulgent)

Sociological Explanations

Social learning; subculture theories of abuse

Who uses more drugs: men or women?

Men (51.2%)

Most likely to cope with depression

Women

Cost of drug abuse?

$64.8 billion/year

Measurable costs

law enforcement activities, criminal justice case processing, steps to prevent money laundering, time lost at work

Non-quantifiable costs

Death/sickness from drug exposure, drug related crime, fragmentation of families, charges in attitudes from drug/crime fear, lost human potential, image of US

Stimulants

Stimulates central nervous system (cocaine, crack, amphetamines, methamphetamines, ectasy)

Depressants

Used illegally to reduce anxiety, treat psychological problems, as mood elevators (nembutal, Seconal, Phenobarbital, Quallude, Sopor, Valium, GHB)

Cannabis

Relatively mild, non-addictive, limited hallucinogenic properties (marijuana, hashish, cannabis plant, sinsemilla, hashish oil)

Narcotics

Legitimate uses include pain relief, antidiarrheal action, cough suppression; used illegally to induce pleasure, euphoria, lock of concern and general feelings or well-being (opium, morphine, heroin, methadone, codeine)

Hallucinogens

Illegally to produce "mind expansions" (LSD, PCP, peyote, belladonna)

Anabolic Steroids

Used illegally for weight gain; to treat arthritic, anemia, and connective disorder, and certain types of cancer; to bulk up and increase strength

Inhalents

"Gate way drug;" variety of psychotropic substances, frequently found in glues, nail polish remover, deodorizers, lighter fluid, paint thinner, kerosene, gasoline, whip its, etc.

Drug-defined crime

Violation of law prohibiting/regulating the possession, use, or distribution of illegal drugs (using drugs)

Drug-related crime

Crime in which drugs contribute to the offense (excluding violations of drug laws) ex: snatching purse to buy drugs

Pharmaceutical diversion

Process by which legitimately manufactured controlled substances are diverted for illicit use ("dr. shopping)

Drug trafficking

Manufacturing, distributing, dispensing, importing, and exporting (or possession with intent to do the same) a controlled substance or a counterfeit substance

Drug-Crime connection

Do drugs "cause" crime? (Correlation between illegal drug use and crime exists) people who use drugs commit a lot of crime than people who do not use drugs

Philosophical Argument

Is drug use "victimless?" Lose of job, increase in health care costs, accidents, homelessness

Prostitution

Selling of sex beyond the relationship of a significant other

Pornography

"writings of prostitution" Gov. controls distribution

Reducing Consensual Crime

Consensual crime laws don't typically work; best way in reducing behavior is to make it legal

Transitional crimes

Criminal activity in all parts of the world

Human smuggling

moving humans internationally and illegally (not trafficking)

Federal Immigration and Trafficking Legislation

Open borders in the US until 1880s

Chinese Exclusion Act

Enacted in 1882 in response to Chinese men immigrated to Western US

Immigration Act

1924, limited the number of immigrants from one country to 2%

Immigration and Nationality Act

1952; Continued with quotas and then provided criminal penalties for anyone bringing in something to the US illegally

HAS (2002)

Dissolved and transferred function to Citizenship and Immigration Services (CIS); Customs and Border Patrol (CBP); and ICE

Domestic terroism

Not subject to state, local or federal laws

International Terrorism

Terrorism around the world

Cyberterroism

Uses technology to carry out terrorist attacks

USA Patriot Act

Longer Jail time for certain suspects arrested without a warrant, broadens searches conducted without notice. Also, increases ability of federal authorities to tap phones

BHS: Protect against terrorism

9/11 commission; Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism; Gilmore Commission

Deputy

County

Troopers

State

Officer

City

FWC (fish&wildlife conservation)

Everywhere