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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
inheritance school
advocates of this view trace the activities of several generations of families believed to haqve an especially large number of criminal members.
a system developed for caterogizing people on the basis of their bodies.
sociologists who held the view that no serious consideration should be given to biological factors when attempting to understand human nature.
reciprocal altruism
according to sociobiology, acts that are outwardly designed to help others but that have at their core benefits to the self.
trait thoery
the view that criminality is a product of abnormal biological and/or psycological traits.
view that all individauls are equal at birth and are thereafter influenced by their enviroment.
a condition that occurs when glucose(sugar) levels in the blood fall below the necessary level for normal and efficient brain functioning.
male sex hormones.
the principle male steroid hormone. testosterone levels decline during the life cycle and may explain why violence rates diminish over time.
a part of the human brain; the leftside of the neocortex controls sympathetic feelings toward others.
premenstrual syndrome
the stereotype that several days prior to and during menstruation females are beset by irritability and poor judgement as a result of hormonal change.
cerebral allergies
a physical condition that causes brain malfunction due to exposure to some enviromental or biochemical irritant.
allergies that affect the nervous system and cause the allergic person to produce anzymes thaqt attack wholesome foods as if they were dangerous to the body. they may also cause welling to the brain.
the study of brain activity.
a device that can record the electronic impulses given off by the brain, commonly called brain waves.
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
a psychological disorder in which a child shows developmentally inappropriate impulsivity, hyperactvity and lack of attention.
conduct disorder
a psychological condition marked by repeated and severe episodes of antisocial behaviors.
chemical restraints
antipsychotic drugs such as haldol,stelazine,prolixim,and risperdal, which help control levels of neurotransmitters(such as seroronin/dopamine), that are used to treat violence-prone people, also callled chemical straitjackets.
chemical strait jackets
anothr term for chemical restraints; antipsychoptic drugs used to treat violence -prone people.
arousal theory
a view of crime suggesting that people who have a high arousal level seek powerful stimuli in their enviroment tom maintain an optimal level of arousal. these stimuli are often associated with violence and aggression.
conduct disorder
a psychological condition marked by repeated and severe episodes of antisocial behaviors.
contagion effect
genetic predispositions and early experiences make some people, including twins, susceptible to deviant behavior which is transmitted by the presence of antisocial siblings in the household.
defective intellignce
traits such as feeblemindedness,epilepsy,insanity, and defective social instinct, which goring believed had a signicant relationship to criminal behavior.
psychoanalytic or psychodynamic perspective
branch of psychology holding that the human personality is controlled by unconscious mental process developed early in childhood.
the branch of psychology concerned with the study of observable behavior rather than unconscious motives. it focuses on the relationship between particlular stimuli and people's responses to them.
cognitive theory
the study of perception of reality and of the mental processes required to understand the world in which we live.
the primitive part of people's mental makeup,present at birth, that represents unconscious biological drives for food,sex,and other life-sustaining necessities.the id seeks instant gratification without concern for the rights of others.
pleasure principle
according to freud,a theory in whoch id-dominated people are driven to increase their personal pleasure without regard to consequences.
the part of the personality,developed in the early chilldhood, that helps control the id and keeps people's actions within the boundaries of social convention.
reality principle
according to freud, the ability to learn about the consequences of one's actions through experience.
incorporation within the personalitiy of the morals standards and values of parents,community,and significant others.
one of two parts of the super-ego; it distinguishes betwenn what is right and wrong.
ego ideal
part of the super-ego; directs the individual into morally acceptable and responsible behaviors, which may not be pleasureable.
the instinct to preserve and create life; eros is expressed sexually.
according to freud, the instinctual drive toward aggression and violence.
oral stage
in freus's schema, the first year of life,when a child attains pleasure by sucking and biting.
anal stage
in freud's schema, the second and third year's of life, when the focus of sexual attention is on the elimination of bodily wastes.
phallic stage
in freus's schema, the third year, when children focus their attention on their genitals.
a stage of development when males begin to have sexual fellings for their mothers.
electra complex
a stage of development when girls begin to have sexual feelings for their fathers.
How does Substance Abuse impact the unit?
Impact on the unit is seen by a decrease in morale/discipline. It degrades unit productivity. It could possibly increase safety hazards or impair the unit mission. You have heard horror stories about drug busts and how substance abuse can affect (money, manpower, equipment, time)
an adult who exhibits behavior traits characteristic of those encountered during infantile sexual development.
inferiority complex
people who have fellings of inferiority and compensate for them with a drive for superiority.
identity crisis
a psycological state, identified by erikson, in which youth face inner turmoil and uncertainty about life roles.
latent delinquency
a psychological predisposition to commit antisocial acts because of an id-dominated personality that renders an individual incapable of controlling impulsive, pleasure-seeking drives.
bipolar disorder
an emotional disturbance in which moods alternate between periods of wild elation and deep depression.
a deficit in emotional cognition that prevents people from being aware of their feelings of being able to understand or talk about their thoughts and emotions; they seem robotic and emotionally dead.
a mental state in which the perception of reality is distorted. people experiencing psychosis hallucinate, have paranoid or delusional beliefs, change personality, exhibit disorganized thinking, and engage in unusual or bizzare behavior.
any type of psychological problem(formerly labeled neuroses or psychoses) such as anxiety disorders, mood disorders,and conduct disorders.
a type of psychosis often marked by bizzare behavior,hallucinations,loss of thought control, and inappropriate emotional responses. schizphrenic types include catatonic,which characteristically involves impairment of motor activity.
paranoid schizophrenic
individuals who suffer complex behavior delusions involving wrongdoing or persecution-they think everyone is out to get them.
social leaning
the view that human behavior is modeled through observation of human social interactions, either directly from observing those who are close and from intimate contact, or indirectly through the media.
behavior modeling
process of learning behavior(notably agression) by observing others. aggresive models may be parents, criminals in the neighborhoods, or characters on televisions or in video games and movies.
moral development
the way people morally represent and reason about the world.
humanistic psychology
a branch of psychology that streses self-awareness and "getting in touch with feelings"
information processing
a branch of cognitive psychology that focuses on the way pepole process,store,encode,retrieve,and manipulate information to make decisions and solve problems.
the reasonably stable patterns of behavior, including thoughts and emotions, that distinguish one person from another.
minnesota multiphasic personality inventory
a widely used psyshological test that has subscales designed to measure many different personality traits, including psycophatic deviation,schizophrenia, and hypomania.
califronia personality inventory
a frequently administered personality test used to distinguish deviant groups from nondeviant groups,.
multidimensional personality questionnaire
a test that allows researchers to asses such personality traits as control,aggression,alienation, and well being.
primary prevention programs
treatment programs that seek to correct of remedy personal problems before they manifest themselves as crime.
secondary prevention programs
treatmentprograms aimed at helping offenders after they have been identified.
tertiary prevention programs
crime control and prevention programs that may be a requirement of a probation order, part of a diversionary sentence, or aftercare at the end of a prison sentence.