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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Academic discipline using scientific method to study nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior
Cesare Beccaria
utilitarianism, cost/benefit analysis, foundation of classical criminology
Classical Criminology/Rational Choice Theory
free will to choose criminal/lawful measures, criminal acts more desirable i.e. cost/benefit, choice of actions controllable by fear of punishment, severe/swift/certain punishment = best deterrent of criminal behavior RATIONAL CHOICE
Positivist Criminology
uses scientific method to suggest that human behavior is controlled by social, biological, psychological, or economic forces, EXTERNAL CONTROL
Biosocial Theory
Cesare Lombroso, assumed link between physical and social traits and their influence on behavior
Sociological Criminology
Emile Durkheim; social factors and effect on crime, i.e. sex, race, population, poverty, etc.
Durkheim; lack of norms or clear social standards, resulting in norm and role confusion.
Chicago School/ Social Structure Theory
crime as reaction to environmental factors, not personal traits or characteristics
Conflict Theory
Karl Marx; interpoersonal conflict and economic inequality used by those with social power to maintain/further their own ends
ex post facto laws
laws passed retroactively to punish acts more severely than before the laws passage
Consensus View of Crime
majority of citizens in society share common values and agree on what should be defined as criminal
Conflict View
criminal behavior defined by those in position of power to advance self-interest
Interactionist View
crime=crime because society labeled it so, those with social/legal power impose values on society as whole and thus define criminal behavior
Code of Hammurabi
most famous written laws, eye for an eye
Mosaic Code
Judeo-Christian foundation
basis of common law, rule derived from previous judicial decisions and applied to future cases
Statutory crimes
crimes reflecting existing social conditions
Social Goals
retribution, deterrence, punishment, social order, equity, morality
cross-sectional research
diverse sampling of subjects, cross-section of community at the same point in time
longitudinal/cohort research
tracking development of same group of subjects over time