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57 Cards in this Set

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What are the 5 justifications for punishment?

Retribution, Deterrence, Incapacitation, Rehabilitation, and Restoration

Retribution

deserved punishment for evil done


"you're going to get what's coming for you"

General Deterrence

by punishing one person, others will be less likely to commit a similar crime


"we're going to punish you so that you will serve as an example to others, so they will not do it"

Specific Deterrence

by punishing a particular person, that specific person will be less likely to commit another criminal act in the future

Absolute Deterrence

potential offenders are deterred totally by risk or severity of punishment

Restrictive Deterrence

potential offenders try to minimize the risk or severity of punishment

Incapacitation

the prevention of potential crime by physically restraining the offender


"we're going to punish you in such a way that you will be physically unable to victimize us"

Rehabilitation

the attempt to reform an offender


"we're going to place you under correctional supervision so that we can find out what your problems are and solve them"



Restoration

designed to repair the harm done to the victim and the community by the offenders act

Recidivism

the repetition of criminal behavior




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Utilitarian

focus on future criminal behavior

Determinate Sentences

specifies a precise period of time that the offender needs to serve



Indeterminate Sentences

offender is given a range of time he/she can serve

Good Time Laws

a reduction in time served by prisoners based on good conduct, conformity to rules, and other positive behavior

Truth-in-Sentencing Laws

legislative attempts to ensure that convicts will serve approximately the terms to which they were initially sentenced

Presentence Investigate Report

an investigate report on an offender's background that assists a judge in deterring the proper sentence

Aggravating Circumstance

any circumstances that may justify a harsher sentence

Mitigating Circumstance

any circumstance that may justify a lighter sentence



Sentencing Disparity

when people who commit similar crimes don't receive same sentence

Sentencing Discrimination

occurs when disparities can be attributed to extralegal variables

Sentencing guidelines

impose a predetermined sentence length based on crime severity and prior criminal record

Mandatory Sentencing

mandates clearly enumerated punishments for specific offenses

Furman vs. Georgia

Supreme Court rules that the death penalty, as administered, was unconstitutional

Woodson vs. North Carolina

Supreme Court deemed mandatory death sentences unconstitutional

Gregg vs. Georgia

Supreme Court rules that guided discretion statues were acceptable in death penalty cases

Coker vs. Georgia

Banned the use of death penalty for rape

Tison vs. Arizona

Allowed the death penalty for offender convicted of felony murder

Atkins vs. Virginia

Prohibited executing the mentally handicapped

Roper vs. Simmons

Forbade younger than 18 years of age when committed crime to the death sentence

Reintergration

preparing offenders to return to the community unmarred by further criminal behavior

Diversion

diverting those who qualify away from prison/jail and toward community- based sanctions

The Low-Cost Alternative

the high cost of incarceration is a strong motivator for some to support community based sanctions

Intermediate Sanctions

sanctions that are more restrictive than probation but less restrictive than imprisonment

Fines

money that offenders must pay to the court as punishment

Day Fines

fine amount is usually linked to the offender's daily income and each offense is assigned a certain number of punishment units

Community Service

a sentence requiring the offender to preform a certain amount of unpaid labor in the community

Restitution

sum of money paid by the offender to the victim in compensation for damages done

Forfeiture

when the government seizes property gained from or used in criminal activity

Pretrial Diversion Programs

the offender agrees to participate in a specified counseling or treatment program in return for withdrawal of the charges

Shock Incarceration

a short period of incarceration designed to deter further criminal activity by "shocking" the offender with the hardships of imprisonment

House Arrest

a community-based sanction in which offenders serve their terms of incarceration in their homes

Decarceration

reduction of inmate populations

Maximum-Security Prison

designed to house most dangerous offenders or repeat offenders

Medium-Security Prisons

typically contain a mix of violent and property offenders who are serving less than life sentences

Minimum-Security Prisons

house less serious offenders (ex. first time or non-violent offenders)

Supermax Prisons

house the "worst of the worst"

Total Institutions

sociologist Erving Goffman characterized prisons as total institutions where "all aspects of life are conducted in the same place and under the same single authority



Prizonization

the socialization process through which a new inmate learns the accepted norms and values of the prison culture

Deprived Model

adaption to prison life is a response to the deprivations imposed by prison life


ex. lack of heterosexual relations, lack of freedom, and lack of privacy

Importation Model

how inmates adapt to prison life is a result of characteristics and experiences inmates bring into prison with them


ex. race, ethnicity, age, martial status, history of

Parole

the conditional release of an inmate before his/her sentence has expired

Pardon

an act of executive lenience that overturns a conviction and erases mention of the crime from the person's criminal record

Emergency Release

releasing inmates from prison early due to overcrowding

What are the forms of Temporary Release?

work release, study release, and furlough

Work Release

daytime release of inmates from correctional institutions so they can work

Study Release

daytime release of inmates from correction institutions so they can attend school

Furlough

temporary release of an inmate from a correctional institution for a brief period for a visit home