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54 Cards in this Set

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What is the forensic anthropologists role

To assist forensic archaeologists and pathologist to identify, lift and transport human remains to the mortuary

What state do human remains have to be in for forensic anthropologists to be called out

Will be skeletonised, fragmented or badly decomposed

What will a forensic anthropologist need to determine to make a profile of the deceased

1. Human from non human

2. MNI

3. From a biological profile

4. Identify any traumatic incidents (trauma, cause of death)

5. Document any evident of pathology

6. Record any non metric traits

7. Private facial reconstruction (is necessary)

8. Send a hand tissue sample for DNA analysis


Give 8 examples of international investigations

1. The Karyn massacre investigation

2. Spanish civil war

3. Holocaust

4. Ethiopian red terror

5. Cambodia: The Killing fields

6. Argentine “Dirty War”

7. Yugoslav wars

8. Rwanda

What are the 4 categories of human rights abuse

1. Genocide

2. Crimes against humanity

3. War crimes

4. Crimes of aggression

What is Genocide and crimes against humanity in general terms

Crimes that are committed in a widespread and methodical way against a specific group with full knowledge on behalf of the perpetrators

What types of acts are involved in crimes against humanity and genocide

1. Murder

2. Torture

3. Systematic rape

4. Extermination

5. Slavery

6. Apartheid

7. Forced disappearances

8. Persecution of a group due to their political, religious or cultural affiliations


What are war crimes and crimes of aggression

International armed conflicted and non international armed conflicts

- outlines appropriate conduct of combatants involved and type of weapons that are not allowed to be used

What does legislation for war crimes and crimes of aggression intend to do

- protect military personnel and civilian populations impacted by armed conflict

- protect civilians from rake and other crimes

- pierces individuals involved in peacekeeping and humanitarian missions

What was the purpose of establishing international crimes tribunals

Enabled human rights abuses to be investigated and tried in an impartial environment without fear of reprisals

What are the 2 types of investigations into human rights abuses

1. Criminal investigations - where evidence gathered will be used in court to persecute

2. Humanitarian investigations - where evidence is used to search for truth of what happened and identify victims, no intent to prosecute.

What is retrieval of human remains referred to as under the two type of investigations for human rights abuses

1. Criminal - excavation

2. Humanitarian - exhumation

Working in an international context what skills do you need

1. Now other languages

2. Personal immunology injections

3. Ability to drive

4. Professional demeanour

5. Good interpersonal skills

6. Confident and pleasant manner

7. Cultural/ ethnic sensitivity

8. Aware of human rights issues

9. Aware of international humanitarian law

What does SOP stand for

Standard operating procedures

SOPs must be establish and agreed on for 13 investigative stages, what are they

1. Site assessment

2. Sure prep

3. Site surveying

4. Excavation/ exhumation

5. Chain of custody of physical evidence

6. Commingled remains/ reassociation of fragments

7. Autopsy procedures

8. Recording methods

9. Storage

10. Tissue selection for destructive analysis

11. Standards adequate for personal identification

12. Method for assessing age, stature, biological sex and ancestry

13. Procedures for determining time that has elapsed since victim died

ICTY case study

- forensic archaeologists employed between 1997 and 2001

- former Yugoslavia

- aim was to recover evidence that could be used in trials of criminals

- data obtained was compiled into report then used during court proceedings

- data helped disprove claims by military and politicians that certain grave contained remains of conflict combatants and not civilian casualties

When did international persecutions of human rights abuses start

After nuremberg military tribunal, international prosecutions didn’t occur until the 1990s

When was the ICC established

After the ICTY and ICTR tribunals and the ratification of the Rome statute in 2002

Where is the ICC based

At The Hague in the Netherlands

What does ICC stand for

International criminal court

What does the ICC have jurisdiction over

Crime that are committed would wide that are deemed an international concern which has been committed after 2002

- if national courts are unwilling or unable to bring matters to court the ICC has the authority to and will step in to prosecute those responsible

For crime that were committed before 2002 what is used to prosecute those involved

Go back to ICTs

Give examples of places in the world that are being officially investigated for international crimes

1. Uganda

2. Democratic republic of Congo

3. Darfur Sudan

4. Kenya

5. Libya

Give examples of place where investigations have taken place but not enough evidence we found to prove an international crime occurred

1. Honduras

2. Korea

3. Venezuela

Give 4 examples of ongoing preliminary examinations

1. Colombia

2. Iraq

3. Nigeria

4. Palestine

When did investigations by ICTY stop

Still on-going

- investigations have now turned into humanitarian investigations rather than criminal

- focus on identifying recovered human remains through use of DNA

- organisation leading this work is ICMP

What does ICMP stand for

International commission on missing persons

What is a mass disaster

Non intentional events


1. Natural disasters

2. Plane crashes

What two major firms work on mass disasters

1. Blake emergency services

2. Kenton international emergency services

What are the two main reasons for investigating mass disasters

1. Legal - identification is legal requirement so death certificates can be issued , wills written by diseased can be honoured, insurance claims can be settled and partners can remarry

2. Humanitarian - bring closure to families

What are the two types of mass disasters

1. Natural disasters

2. Human made - can be accidental or deliberate, can be a crime scene e.g. terrorism

Name 9 forensic specialists

1. Forensic archaeology

2. Forensic anthropologist

3. Forensic pathologist

4. Forensic dentists (odontologists)

5. Fingerprint specialist

6. DNA analysis

7. Medico-legal investigators

8. Funeral directors

9. Forensic managers

What is the main aim of a mass disaster investigation

Identify the victims rather than determine cause of death as that’s usually apparent or strongly suspected

Who established the DVI process


What does INTERPOL stand for

International criminal police organisation

What steps are taken at the disaster scene

1. Devise appropriate system for search and recovery based on size and scope of event

2. Locate, recognise and recover remains especially those burnt and fragmented

3. Train search personnel to recognise human remains (usually volunteers)

4. Provide field assessment of state of remains

5. Record and recover evidentiary items that could explain cause of disaster

6. Record scene for later investigation



What happens when remains arrive at mortuary

- triage station established

- station container human remains were transformed in are radiographers - don’t to identify sharp metal or unexplored ordinance

- forensic specialist sort human remains from material

- recovered material allocated an evidence number

- personal items allocated unique code that will link to human remains so when person is identified items can be returned to family

What do forensic anthropologist do at the Mortuary stage

1. Assists with triage of remains

2. Separate commingled remains

3. Describe incomplete or fragmentary remains and condition of remains

4. Determine biological sex, age, ancestry, stature, and other distinguishing characteristics

5. Interpret radiographs for age estimation and unique skeletal features

6. Determine MNI

7. Analyse trauma evidence and incident related injuries

8. Conduct quality assurance of remains before they are released to morgue


What are recently deceased individuals identified by

1. Finger/foot/hand/toe prints

2. Odontology

3. Radiology

4. DNA analysis

5. Permanently installed medical devices

6. Distinct physical characteristics e.g. tattoos, scars

7. Photographs of deceased


Factors that influence the process

1. Record keeping - developing nations tend not to have detailed records, easily accessible like west

2. Criminal activity - if crime took place before or during mass disaster, further investigation required

3. Multinational involvement - night involve individuals from different countries, can cause logistical and legal issue



Why did certain countries not get international assistance in the Asian tsunami

Because they didn’t have any western nationals in the country

What other methods were used for identification - Bali bombing

Conducted fingerprint analysis and forensic biologist collected comparative DNA samples from victims

What steps did they take for phase 3 - Bali bombing

- initiated on 17 of October after list of missing person was released 5 days after incident

- police collected ante mortem data from families, dentists, doctors etc and interviews friends and family

- took pic of clothing and jewellery commonly worn by victims and used hair combs and toothbrushes for DNA extraction



What happened for stage 4 in Bali bombing And date

- antemortem and post-mortem data was matched to positively identify victims

- occurred in 25th of October


Phase 5 - Bali bombing

- Bali DVI finishes operations on 15th feb 2003

- total of 202 victims from 21 countries

- 199 positively identified including 88 Australians

- 39 body parts linked to one individuals thought to have been bomber - unidentified


How many DVI teams went into Thailand to respond to the disaster (Asian tsunami)

30 DVI teams

- established INTERPOL protocols were followed

Why was visual identification useless for the Asian tsunami disaster

Bodies were too decompose

Why were forensic anthropologists not used in the Asian tsunami disaster

- would have required an alternation in protocol

- DNA analysis was relied on, took a lot longer than it should have

What does CIFA stand for and how was it established

Centre for international forensic assistance

- as a result of British forensic specialists working on Asian tsunami in Thailand CIFA was launched in 2006 to coordinate medical, scientific and techno quack component ms of mass disaster response teams

- speed up process

When did the Bali bombing happen

12 October 2002

What county did the majority of casualties in the Bali bombing come from


- though that more than half were Australian

What step were taken in phase 1 for the Bali bombing

- treated as crime scene

- victims systematically recovered and placed in cold storage

- photographed and videoed scene and position of remains

- remains located not only in buildings but surrounding area such as top of roofs

- each piece of evidence and body part was allocated a unique identification number m, bagged and delivered to mortuary

- personal effects (items) were collected, recorded and labelled

What step were taken in phase 2 for the Bali bombing

- due to lack of refrigeration units victims were placed under awnings connected to mortuary and covered in ice

- remains logged and placed in storage until space and personal were able to examine them

- bodies examined my pathologist, odontologists and anthropologist

- focus on finding attributes that would enable identification rather than cause of death

- face and body photographed clothes and unclothed

- personal effects photographed

- individual characteristics noted

- however due to scale of disaster items became lost and not everything was returned to loved ones


Problem with visual identification - Bali bombing

16 bodies were positively identified but 9 were incorrect

- show you need other evidence to back it up