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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Why Punish?

1. Crime reduction:

  • Deterrence: punishing stops further offending (death penalties)
  • Rehabilitation: punishment can be used to reform offenders (probation)
  • Incapacitation: remove offender's capacity to offend again (prison)

2. Retribution:

  • means "pay back"
  • offender deserves to be punished and society is entitled to take revenge on offender
  • e.g. fines, death penalty, community service

Social perspectives on punishment

> Functionalism

Functionalism (Durkheim)

  • prison functions to uphold social solidarity, reinforcing shared values

  • boundary maintenance: reinforces the rules by implementing prospect of punishment

1. Retributive justice: traditional society strong collective conscience, punishment severe.

2. Restorative justice: modern society - Accountability defined as assuming responsibility and taking action to repair harm

× Reductionist: street crime v white collar who decides what is a moral offence?

+ effectiveness: best interests of all, punishment severe enough but morally upstanding

social perspectives on punishment

>> Marxism and Realism


Right Realism: zero tolerance policies

Left realism: looking at rehabilitation as ZT causes discrimination

Marxism: (capitalism and punishment)

  • punishment function maintain existing social order
  • part of RSA helping defend ruling class property
>> e.g. Thompson: 18th century punishments of hanging/deportation were part of rule of terror, exercising control over poor

+ Holistic: takes into consideration MC crime and root causes

>> Contemporary e.g: America's war on terror and increased surveillance

× effectiveness: what practical solution?

social perspectives on punishment

>> Birth of the prison- Foucault

1. Sovereign power

  • pre-modern society, monarch had control over people + bodies.
  • punishment was a spectacle e.g. public execution

2. Disciplinary power:

  • seeks to govern not just bodies but also minds through power of surveillance
  • Foucault: panoptican prison -surveillance becomes self surveillance and discipline, self discipline due to fear of being watched

+ demonstrates this idea as prevalent in all aspects of society e.g. schools, mental asylums

× shift from corporal punishment to imprisonment wasless clear than he suggests

× He exaggerates extent of control – won’t always occur, de-sensitization

imprisonment today

  • seen as most severe punishment in UK but not successful in rehabilitating prisoners

  • popular with public so political parties use "stricter punishments" to gain electoral popularity

>> result: prison population increase + overcrowding

improsonment today: prison population

prison pop: mostly male/WC/young/poorly educated + blacks overrepresented

Garland: USA and even UK is moving into mass incarceration era

+Allusion: Capitalism look successful as prisons soaks up 40% of unemployed

Prisonment today: Transcarceration

Transcarceration: trend towards individuals being institutionalized all their lives e.g. care- young offenders- prison

+ aim: diversion diverting Y/O away from prison system to avoid SFP

e.g. community based programmes, curfews, tagging, ASBOs

× not all successful in diverting Y/O away from prison system e.g. ASBOs a badge of honour

Crime prevention and control

>> Right Realist: Clarke

Situational crime prevention:

  • aim to reduce opportunity for crimes rather than improving society
e.g. locking doors, windows, CCTV to make it harder for crimes to be committed

× criticizes root causes such as poor socialisation/capitalism -fail to offer solution

+ Felson: port authority bus terminal in NY

- poorly designed/provided opportunities for deviant conduct

e.g. luggage thefts, rough sleeping, drugs

- Re-shaping the physical environment greatly reduced such activity

e.g. large sinks where homeless were bathing replaced with small basins

Evaluation of Clarke

+ Practical: easy and cheap to introduce crime prevention strategies

× Displacement: crime then moves to another area

> Chaiken et al: found a crackdown on subway roberries in NY just displaced crimes to streets above

× focuses on petty crime and ignores white collar crime prevention

× ignores the root causes of crime e.g. capitalism, poverty

Crime prevention and control

> Environmental crime prevention

> Wilson and Kelling: Broken windows

  • leaving broken windows unrepaired leaving graffiti etc sends out signal that no one cares
  • respectable people move out + areas become a magnet for deviants
  • solution: crack down on any disorder-
  • Two-fold strategy: 1. environmental improvement 2. zero tolerance policing

+ influential and zero tolerance policing has been seen to have successes in NY

× does not solve the causes of crime

× doesn't focus on white collar crimes

× displacement to areas with less prevention

Crime prevention and control

> social and community crime prevention

Social and community crime preventions

  • aim: remove the conditions that pre-dispose individuals to crime in the first place i.e root cause
  • Long-term strategies which tackle the root causes of offending e.g. policies to promote full employment

× crime will still occur as the prevention take place

× impractical: expensive which take a long time

× softer policing: re-offending or increase in crime due to more opportunities

Victims and victimization

>> UN definition: those who have suffered harm (including mental, physical, emotional suffering, economic loss and impairment of basic rights) through acts or or omissions that violate the laws of the state

× Christie: a victim is socially constructed e.g. the media creates a stereotype of ideal victim (someone who is weak, blameless or innocent e.g. a child or an old woman)

>> impact of victimization:

- can have serious physical/emotional impact on its victims e.g. disrupted sleep, feeling helpless, difficulties socially

Patterns of victimisation

>> Class: poorest groups are more likely to be victims e.g. more crime in deprived areas

+ Newburn and Rock homeless people 12 x more likely to experience violence + 1/10 urinated on

>> Age: Generally younger people are more at risk

- Babies: under 1 most at risk of being murdered

- teenagers: more vulnerable than adults to offences like assault, sexual harassment, theft and abuse

- elderly: risk of abuse in old people's home

>> Ethnicity: EMs are at greater risk of victimization - racially motivated crimes

>> Gender: men are at greater risk than females at being victims of violent attacks

  • about 70% of homicide victims are male
  • women more likely to be victims of domestic abuse, sexual violence, stalking/harassment

>> repeat victimization: if you are a victim once, likely to be a victim again

  • BCS: 60% of pop not victims to any crime in a given year, yet 4% of pop are victims of 44% of all crime in that period

Victimology: Positivist

1. Positivist victimology: victims invite victimization by the type of person they are (displaying wealth, not making home secure, being drunk)

> Miers: defines the aims of positivists victimology

  • identify factors which produce patterns in victimization especially those which make people victim prone
  • Hentig: Identified social/psychological characteristics of victims (likely to be female, elderly, "mentally subnormal")
  • Wolfgang: victim precipitation- 588 homicides, 26% involved victims triggering the murder e.g. first to use violence

+ Brookman: his study notes the importance or victim-offender relationship, down to chance as who ends up as victim

× Victim blaming: suggests they asked for it

× structural theorists: ignores wider structural factors e.g. poverty, patriarchy

× reductionist: ignores situations where victims are unaware of their victimization e.g. green crime

Victimology: Critical

2. Critical criminology: Powerless groups are at greater risk and the cause is not the individuals' behaviour but society

> structural factors: patriarchy/poverty places powerless groups such as women/poor at greater risk of victimisation

> Manipulation of victim label: state has power to apply/deny the label of victims

e.g. when police drop charges on man for assault on wife, denying her victim status

Critical Victimology: evaluation

+ Tombs and Whyte: show how violation of health and safety laws are often explained as the fault of worker

+ rape cases: women blamed for fate e.g. asking what they were wearing

>> failure to label individuals as victims hides true extent to victimization

+ "Woke": demonstrates how victim label is constructed by power + how benefits powerful at expense of powerless

+ critical criminology: refutes idea that victim caused their victimization through own choices e.g. not making home secure