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72 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are a variety of punishments that are more restrictive than probation but less stringent than imprisonment?
Intermediate sanctions
What are some characteristics of intermediate sanctions?
Increased surveillance, tighter controls over non-incarcerated offenders, rapidly being adopted across the nation, and are innovative control schemes
What is a court ordered condition of probation that requires an offender to repair the financial, emotional, and physical damage done, by making financial payment to the victim, or contribute to a fund to provide services to victims?
What is a residential facility to which offenders who fall behind on their restitution payments are sent to live until they catch up on restitution payments?
Restitution Center
What is a form of fine based upon the court’s determination of how much punishment an offender deserves as measured by some unit other than money (such as days or months)?
Day fine
What is considered compensation for injury to society by forcing the offender to perform service to the community without pay. Usually referred to as court-ordered community work order?
Community service
What is the judicial process of increasing the number and conditions of punishment until the probationer is brought under the most effective control?
Tourniquet sentencing
What is a criminal court devoted to handling substance addiction cases?
Drug court
What is the purpose of a drug court?
Reduce crime by changing defendants’ drug-abusing behavior through diverting defendants to appropriate treatment programs
What is a drug court composed of?
-A single drug court judge and staff who provide focus and leadership
-Expedited adjudication through early identification and referral of appropriate program participants
What are some elements of a drug court?
-Initiation of treatment as soon as possible after arrest
-Intensive treatment and aftercare for drug-abusing defendants
-Increased defendant accountability under a graduated series of rewards and punishments appropriate to conforming or violative behavior
How do drug courts provide close supervision?
-Monitor treatment progress
-Ensure offender compliance
-Require mandatory and frequent drug (and alcohol) testing
-Use supervised and individual case monitoring
What is a surveillance program utilizing computer technology and devices that monitor the presence of offenders under home detection. It can be also used to detect alcohol and drug use, as well as the exact location of the offender outside the dwelling?
Electronic Monitoring
What is a non-confining residential facility for adjudicated adults/juveniles, an alternative to confinement suitable for those offenders where regular probation is not an option, and those needing a period of readjustment after confinement?
Community Residential Treatment Center
What are some characteristics of Community Residential Treatment Centers?
-Clients receive more services and treatments than comparison
-Have significant impact with high risk offenders
-Increase the rate of failure for low risk offenders
-Provide client-needed services that are valuable in offender control and outcome
What is a demanding program of intense, military-type discipline and conditioning employing physical exercise, basic education, life and work-skill development, and substance abuse treatment. Designed for juvenile and youthful offenders?
Boot camps
Why are boot camps producing the desired reductions in recidivism?
-They tend to mix low, medium, and high risk offenders together
-Model aggressive behavior
What is a major goal of prison administrators?
Inmate labor does most of the maintenance and feeding services, but all prison programs serve the essential function of managing time
What is it called when a custody officer is sick or takes a vacation he or she must be replaced by another corrections officer?
What represents about 10% of the institution’s budget, custody operates 24/7 for 365 days, and prisons not closing for religious or national holidays?
Resources for treatment
What is the process by which inmates are assigned levels of custody and security based on potential risk of: escape, violence, victimization, and suicide?
What are some advantages to classification?
It will assign dangerous inmates to a high-security institution, and it will avoid misclassification of most inmates creating less inmate resentment
What are some example of inmate education/training programs?
-Literacy success decreases recidivism
-Some jurisdictions mandate literacy attainment as a pre-condition to parole
What is vocational rehabilitation?
Prison programming intended to improve education skills to prisoners and improve their employability once released from the institution
What is a treatment approach to prevent relapse and recidivism by use of existing community services, and often it has a reentry plan to lower recidivism?
Reintegration model
What are some characteristics of the reintegration model?
Ties between offenders, their families, and their employers need to be maintained
Offenders will be returning to their communities
Based on the belief that criminal behavior results from a lack of opportunity to succeed in legitimate activities in the community
What is a formal release program?
-Programs for education and work purposes
-Inmates are carefully screened for eligibility and risk level
-Inmates are required to reside in designated facilities
-Prisoners remain inmates while on release
What is the purpose of jails?
-Local (or combined with State) operated correctional facilities that confine people before or after conviction
-Inmates sentenced to jail usually have a sentence of one year or less
What are some jail populations and characteristics?
Felons and misdemeanant, First time and repeat offenders, Adults (male and female) and juveniles, Accused and convicted, Guilty and innocent, Those awaiting arraignment or trial, Conviction and sentencing, Probation, Parole, Bail bond violators and absconders
What are some continuing jail characteristics?
-More than half of the persons in jail are pretrial
-10% have been found guilty, but not yet sentenced
What are some issues with jail overcrowding?
-Improvement in physical facilities have been offset by overcrowding
-Rated capacity has increased to over 800,000
-More than 1 in 4 of the largest jails are under court order to limit populations
Correctional education is designed to provide inmates with?
Counseling casework
What are some characteristics of convicted jail inmates?
-More than half were under the influence of drugs or alcohol (or both) at the time of their current offense
-One-quarter had participated in a drug treatment program
-One-sixth had participated in an alcohol treatment program
What are some ways in reducing overcrowding?
-Conversion of old motels
-Using manufactured housing units
-Tent cities
-Leasing from other jurisdictions
-House arrest
-Electronic monitoring
-Double bunking
-Contract out (treatment programs)
Who is in charge of the developing standards of criminal justice?
The American Correctional Association
What are some alternatives to jail?
Fines (price-tag justice), weekend confinement, and community work orders
What is a major issue in jail?
Inmate mental health is the top concern and recommended that the government give more support in that area
What refers to trying to solve the overcrowding problem by building more prison cells?
"Bricks and mortar solution"
What are some major effects on prison overcrowding?
More difficult to enforce a classification system
What are some characteristics of a supermax prison?
-Violent, seriously disruptive, assaultive, and escape-prone inmates
-Including gang activists, who pose immense challenges to prison security and custody
-A prison having walls
What are Security Threat Groups (STG)?
Prison gangs; a criminal enterprise having an organizational structure and internal leadership, acting as an ongoing criminal conspiracy that uses violence and other criminal activity to continue
What is the purpose of controlling contraband?
-To control the introduction of articles that can be used for trading and gambling,
-To control the collecting of junk and the accumulation of items that make housekeeping difficult, and
-To identify medications and drugs and items that can be used as weapons and escape implements.
What extreme measures do prison officials take to avoid escapes?
Electrified fences
What is the process of adapting to the culture of the prison?
What is a minimizing penetration into the criminal justice system through police, community, or court programs; which includes non-dangerous, mentally disordered, drug and alcohol abusers?
What requires defendants awaiting trial to report to a supervision officer, and is an example of a court-based diversion program?
Pretrial intervention programs
What are some characteristics of a court-based diversion program?
-Dismissal of pending charges based on satisfactory project participation and self-improvement
-Extension of the continuance to allow the program staff more time to work with the person
-Return of the defendant to normal court processing, without prejudice
What kind of diversion is offered to offenders in which successful completion of probation allows the prosecutor or judge to cease prosecution if treatment program results in no conviction?
Treatment in lieu of conviction
What is referred to as legislation that funds local
community correctional programs designed to divert offenders from prison?
Community corrections act (CCA)
What are some reasons for intermediate sanctions?
A larger number of persons at risk to commit crime and be incarcerated, the shift to conservative beliefs about how to deal with offenders and crime, the War on Drugs, and enactment of more stringent punishments
Why are intermediate sanctions effective?
-Channeling offenders into community-based corrections to reduce or delay prison overcrowding
-Designed for offenders that to pose too much risk for probation services but not enough risk for prison
-Less expensive than incarceration in either jail or prison
-Offer more rehabilitation and reintegration potential than incarceration
What is a sentence whereby offenders serve at least some of their sentence in their own domicile?
Home detention
What is designed to give offenders a short “taste of the bars” followed by a period of supervised probation?
Shock probation
What is the process of leading managers to assign inmates to an institution?
External classification
What is the process of assigning inmates to types of programs, work, and cell locations?
Internal classification
What is the process by which inmate control and programming are changed?
What services are included in the treatment model?
Vocational training, education, counseling, teaching, casework, religious activities, therapeutic communities, peer counseling, and clinical activities
What education are most inmates able to receive through institutional programs?
GED, two and four-year college levels
What is a program of temporary leave from a prison for educational, work, or emergency purposes?
Furlough (educational release)
What is the primary focus of group interactions?
To help the offender change those thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, and actions that create the potential for and actual criminal behavior
Who are offenders housed in a local facility, including those waiting for trial, those awaiting transport to a state or federal prison, and those convicted of a crime, usually punishable by less than one year?
Jail inmates
Who are considered inmates held in jail awaiting
transportation to a federal or state prison?
"Holdback" jail inmates
A jail inmate who is allowed to live at home during the week (usually to work) and who must report to jail to serve his or her sentence on weekends is considered?
What is referred to as holding someone accused of a crime who cannot make bail?
Pretrial jail incarceration
What is considered to be any prison whose main products would be agricultural and whose institutional value is the foodstuffs and produce grown?
Agricultural prison
What are low-security facilities organized around work on the exterior of the prison facility?
Work camps
What is the initial process by which offenders are assigned to level of custody, work assignment, and treatments?
Initial classification
What is the process by which offenders are assigned to types of custody and treatment programs, based on such factors as offense category, escape potential, substance abuse patterns, previous experience with the criminal justice system, and etc?
Classification process
What is the basic and mandatory functions for assigning prisoners to support institutional objectives?
Institutional needs
What helped reinforce correctional administrators’ perceptions of offenders as morally, psychologically, physically, and educationally inferior human beings?
Restraint and reformation
What is a “go-slow” approach to design and implementation of new programs?
Gradualism approach
What is implementing programs without a systematic, rational scheme considered?
Isolationism and withdrawal