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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

dominate organisms

hermatype (reef-building) , corallineAlgae
Ecologyof Coral Organism
zooxanthellae and Symbiotic(mutualistic) relationships of the hermatypiccorals.


protection and nutrients


hotosynthesis, Oxygenand Aidsin calcification
Mechanismsof Calcification
Geochemical precipitation,Biomineralization ,Calcification
Typesof Calcareous Material
Aragonite, Calcite, Tropicswhere water is supersaturated with CaCO3

advantages of calcification

resistance to

labrasion, Waveshock,grazing.

advantage of calcification

protection against

fouling,lepiphytesand High/intenselight .
Pantropical ,n Indo-Pacific Ocean, 18-20 c isotherms ,AtlanticOcean ( Caribbean basin )
Factorswhich Influence Coral Reef Development
TropicalTemperature ,Transparent water Salinity (35 psu), Limited Air Exposure
Typesof Reefs
fridge, Barrier , Atoll, patchreef , bankreef


Growsout from a land mass but is still attached.
Separatedfrom land mass by a lagoon.
Circular-to-ovalshaped reef that surrounds a central lagoon Notassociated with land mass may have small island/windward side.

four theories that explain the origin of coral reefs

darwnin theory, glacial activity, plate tectonic theory, Antecedent-plateform Theory

Submarine volcanoes formed islandsrising from the sea floor, After these islands rose above sealevel, they gradually began to sink back into the sea, As islands subsided, their coastswere colonized by corals.
Sea level changes resulting from theglacial activity of the Pleistocene Epoch. Resulted in the formation of erosional terraces upon which modern reefs developed
Platetectonic Theory
Seafloor spreading which results inthe movement of major plates that make-up the earth’s crust. Results in the rising and lowering ofplates in relation to water depth.
Antecedent-plateform Theory

combination of all three

abiotc factors

temperature, nitrogen, salinity, water motion

biotic factors

Competition for substrate and spacebetween corals and other algae, Grazing activities

coral reef zones

Intertidal/BackReef BreakerZone/Reef Crest Forereef
Productivityof Coral Reefs
High gross productivity, in spite of low nutrients.

Biological regulation of a positivebalance of nutrients for growth and calcification.

ciguatera , nitrogenfixation,symbioticbacteria § blue-greenalgea insponges
eutrophication , sedimentation ,oilpollution , coralmining ,destructivefishing practices
Interactionsof Human Disturbances with Natural Disturbances
storms& hurricanes ,coralbleaching &disease , outbreaks& coral predators ,massmortalities of reef herbivores