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42 Cards in this Set

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What are the six classes of nutrients

Carbohydrates, lipids, protein, vitamins, minerals, and water

what is peristalsis

Transportation of food

where is most nutrients absorbed

The small intestines

Monosaccharides are...

The simple sugars

Glucose, fructose, galactose

Disaccharides are

Double sugars examples sucrose (table sugar) lactose and maltose (found in germinating cereal grains)

What is the function of glucose

Quick absorption into blood ready source of energy for cellular metabolism

Quick rise and fall of blood sugar, quick return to hunger state

What are the complex carbohydrates and what do they do

Starch, glycogen, fiber, provides consistent blood sugar level

What is fibers essential purpose

The formation of bulk in stool and delays absorption of CHO and cholesterol

What are fats (lipids) and what do they do

Concentrated form of energy, they are protein sparing protecting protein from being burned for energy

What types of fat are there

Saturated the bad fats except for coconut oil and palm oil, and unsaturated the good fat such as corn oil soy bean oil

What are essential fatty acids necessary for

Production of healthy blood cells and health of arteries nerves and skin

What is cholesterol

A component of fat synthesized in the liver essential need for body

Cholesterol is a precursor of what five major hormones

Progesterone, glucocorticoids(breakdown fat), mineralocorticoids(aldosterone;control of BP) , Androgens (male development), and estrogens

What are HDL and LDL

High-density lipoproteins so called good cholesterol, and low-density lipoproteins

What is carried in the blood by low-density lipoproteins


What are proteins needed for

Maintenance of fluid balance, transport of nutrients, build and repair body tissues, antibody enzyme and hormone production, energy source after depletion of CH O and fat

What are amino acids

20 total 9 essential must be consumed 11 are non essential and manufactured by the liver

Lacto ovo vegetarian

Includes dairy and eggs

Which vitamins are fat soluble

Vitamins A, d, E, and K

What is vitamin A necessary for

Vision specifically night vision

What is vitamin E protect against

Chronic disease of aging, found in Special K cereal

Why should a person who takes warfarin consult a doctor before taking large doses of vitamin E

Counters vitamin K's blood clotting mechanism

Without vitamin K to promote blood clotting a single cut would eventually...

Lead to death because of blood loss

What are free radicals

Deficient in energy, they attack and snatch energy from other cells to satisfy themselves

What are the damaging effects of free radicals

Premature aging cancer atherosclerosis cataracts and age-related macular degeneration

What vitamins act as antioxidants

Vitamin A vitamin E and vitamin C

What is vitamin K necessary for

Blood clotting

What are the water soluble vitamins

Vitamin C, b6, b12, thiamin b1, riboflavin b2, niacin b3, pantothenic acid, biotin, folate

Where is biotin found

Egg yolks,

Which vitamin has the most prevalent case of deficiency


Which vitamin lowers the risk of heart disease

B12, impairment in absorption causes loss of intrinsic factor

What is chloride used for

Maintain fluid / acid base balance

What is magnesium used for

Regulation of heartbeat

What is iodine necessary for

Thyroid function

What is iron used for

Formation of hemoglobin

What is zinc used for

wound healing, protein synthesis, immune function

What are the uses of phosphorus, and potassium,

Phosphorus helps the building of teeth and bone, potassium helps in acid base balance transmission of nerve impulses and muscle contraction

What is chromium used for

Activates enzyme and enhance his removal of glucose

What is total parenteral nutrition

Delivering total nutrition through a catheter into a large vein used for patients on long term therapy

How do you measure body mass index

Weight / height inches squared x 703

What is the normal body mass index range

18.5 - 24.9

What diet can reduce hypertension

Consume more fruits vegetables low fat dairy products reduce sodium intake exercise