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93 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Looking for potential risks

Vulnerability Assessment

Confirms or denies vulnerabilities

Penetration Testing

HTTPS port


Someone with knowledge and privilege from within the organization

Insider Threat

Someone trying to access an organization's resources from outside the organization

External Threat

FTP port


SSH port


TFTP port


HTTP port




Telnet port


SMTP port


SNMP port


DNS port


System placed within a DMZ or private network that is designed to lure malicious users away from production environments


Entire network designed to attract attackers away from production environments


Used to identify potential threats and weaknesses within a network infrastructure

Vulnerability Scanners

Multi-platform scanner

GFI LANguard

Patch, configuration and compliance auditing


Identify IT exposures and prioritize remediation


Locates application-level vulnerabilities

IBM ISS Internet Scanner

Specifically designed to help monitor the behavior and health of the Mac OS-X system


Security Auditors Research Assistant - Carries out multi-vendor system-level tests instead of application-level tests


Performs assessments using a web-based tool


Uncovers areas of weakness and recommends fixes


Provides a streamlined method to identify missing security updates and common misconfigurations


Vulnerability scan that will not directly attack a system

Passive Vulnerability Assessment

Vulnerability scan that can disrupt normal network operations and trigger alerts

Active Vulnerability Assessment

Evaluate security posture using the same techniques employed by cyber criminals

CORE Impact Pro

Hundreds of exploits on automated exploitation system and development framework


Helps verify vulnerabilities and manage security assessments


Ability to know and fully understand how your network should be performing day-to-day

Network Baseline

TCP/IP Model Layer 1

Network Access

TCP/IP Model Layer 2


TCP/IP Model Layer 3

Transport (TCP/IP)

TCP/IP Model Layer 4

Application (TCP/IP)

OSI Model Layer 1


OSI Model Layer 2

Data Link

OSI Model Layer 3


OSI Model Layer 4

Transport (OSI)

OSI Model Layer 5


OSI Model Layer 6


OSI Model Layer 7

Application (OSI)

Layer 4 Encapsulation Units


Layer 3 Encapsulation Units


Layer 2 Encapsulation Units


Layer 1 Encapsulation Units


A company wants to know what damage can occur from an attacker who has access to network and application data

White Box Test

A company wants to know what damage can occur when an attacker has gained no prior knowledge of their network

Black Box Test

A company wants to know what damage can occur when an attacker has taken the time to research available information

Gray Box Test

A company wants to find out how attackers can use company information in an attempt to attack the network

Blind Test

A company wants to find out how attackers can use network design vulnerabilities can be exploited if attackers know the network

Targeted Testing

A company runs a test without telling very many people

Double-Blind Test

Organization avoids risk altogether

Risk Avoidance

Placing responsibility of the risk on someone else

Risk Transfer

Organization approaches the vulnerability as a must fix scenario.

Risk Mitigation

Vulnerability has been identified, but due to the nature and the business necessity, is accepted

Risk Acceptance

An organization warns of retaliation if affected

Risk Deterrence

Does not include fault tolerance


Data is mirrored


Disk striping with parity


Involves individuals sitting around a table with a facilitator discussing situations that could arise and how best to respond to them

Tabletop Exercise

This is a monetary measure of how much loss you could expect in a year.

Annual Loss Expectancy (ALE)

Monetary value representing how much you expect to lose at any one time

Single Loss Expectancy (SLE)

The likelihood of an event occurring within a year

Annualized Rate of Occurrence (ARO)

Measure of the anticipated incidence of failure for a system or component

Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF)

The average time to failure for a nonrepairable system

Mean Time to Failure (MTTF)

Measurement of how long it takes to repair a system or component once a failure occurs

Mean Time to Restore

Hosting services and data on the Internet instead of hosting it locally

Cloud Computing

Vendors allow apps to be created and run on their infrasturcture

Platform as a Service (PaaS)

Applications are remotely run over the web.

Software as a Service (SaaS)

Utilizes virtualization and clients pay an outsourcer for resources used

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

This attack occurs when information is captured over a network and used at a later time

Replay Attack

Process of trying to guess passwords with the use of a password cracker

Brute-force Attack

Process of manipulating traffic by sending users who think they are accessing a specific host to a different host

Pharming Attack

Involves using software on the victim's computer to allow the attacker to gain access to the computer without logon credentials

Backdoor Attack

Newer algorithm that is not supported by NTLM. It is one of the more secure encryption algorithms used.

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

Hash algorithm used by NTLM

Message Digest Algorithm (MD4)

An older block cipher that uses a 56-bit key

Data Encryption Standard (DES)

Designed to ensure the integrity of a message. It is a one-way hash that provides a 256-bit hash value that can be used with an encryption protocol

Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-256)

Given as part of a security posture assessment that provides a starting point from which changes will be made

Baseline Configuration

Part of a security posture assessment that places emphasis on ensuring that the current environment is continuously monitored for security

Continuous Security Monitoring

Information that only an individual shoud know, such as a PIN

Something You Know

Uses character-based authentication, which is based on the physical traits of individuals

Something You Are

Is ownership-based, whereby you possess a physical item or device

Something You Have

Authentication factor is based on an individual's actions or behaviors

Something You Do

Based on an individual's geographic location (geolocation) during the authentication process

Somewhere You Are

First step when establishing business impact analysis (BIA)

Identify Critical Functions

Second step when establishing business impact analysis (BIA)

Identify Dependencies

Third step when establishing business impact analysis (BIA)

Determine Maximum Allowable Downtime

Fourth step when establishing business impact analysis (BIA)

Identify Possible Threats

Fifth step when establishing business impact analysis (BIA)

Determine Mitigation Techniques

Designed to avoid discovery by actively seeking out antivirus programs and attempting to disable or infect them