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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
rhetorical devices
verbal communication strategies designed to transform an otherwise bland presentation into one that is unique and inspiration
keep it simple
use simple clear concise language helps audiences focus on the cor issues of the speaker's argument
limit use of jargon
define the technical terms unique to a particular group or profession
limit acronyms
define these words formed from the first letters of each word in a name or phrase
avoid phrases that don't say anything
avoid using bloated speech that say nothing.
pronounce words accurately
misprounounced words can give feelings of lack of credibility in the audience.
adapt to audience responses to accent or dialect
dialect refers to different words or labels people use for the same phenomenon.

accent refers to the way words are pronounced.

to counter any negative audeince perceptions:

1. see if the audience understands the phrases used
2. clarify the meanings of the words you use
3. recognize and respect hte audience's unique dialect and accent and occasionally use one of the words or phrases unique to the co-culture
appreciate efforts to speak english as a second language
1. speak a little slower so audeince can adjust to slight differences in speech
2. use gestures and facial expressions
3. do not apologize for difficulties
4. use and translate any words from the primary language
use imaginative imagery
imagery involves use of carefully chosen words and phrases that appeal to the senses of touch, taste, sound, sight, and smell
concrete images
use of concrete language to arouse imagery can help audience attend to and perceive with greater accuracy than abstract messages
create images through the use of direct and expressed analogy. uses words like "as" and "like".

ex: i was as tired as a dog
develop a picture by implied analogy. comparing object to object.

ex: late bloomer, cant see the forest for the trees
use intense, animated language
makes presentation more gripping and appealing.

contributes to attitude and behavior change.
grammatical voice
the relationship between the subject of a sentence and the action of the verb
passive voice
subject receives the action

ex: the potato was eaten by brian
active voice
subject performs the action

ex: brian eats the potato
avoid unnecessary qualifiers and use power words
by eliminating qualifying phrases, speaker is perceived as stronger
use bias-free language
speakers must avoid reinforcing questionable attitudes and assumptions about people's ethnictiy, gender, or other co-cultural affiliation
apply the principle of self definition
use names or labels that the individuals listening to the speech choose for themselves

elderly for old people
alchoholic for drunk
pro choice for pro abortion
don't mention group membership unnecessarily
if co-cultural affiliation is irrelevant to your point, don't bring it up.
give parallel treatment
the speaker provide similar lables for comparable groups.

ex: man and woman are parallel. husband and wife are parallel. man and wife are not.
be inclusive and avoid making unwrrented assumptions
don't use wording that leaves out individuals or groups or treats them as other than equals.

ex: don't use statement like "Asia consists of China and Japan." this excludes nations such as Vietnam and Thailand
don't use masculine terms as generics
masculine pronounes should not be used as generic terms that refer to both women and men.

can do this by
1. using the plural "they"
2. using the second-person "you"
3. omit pronoun
4. pair the pronouns "he or she"
5. rephrase thes tatement.
don't use feminine endings
feminine endings such as "ess" and "ette" specify gender when its irrelevant, imply male is the norm, and carry the sense of smallness or cuteness.
remember people are people first
describing people by a particular characteristic may be inappropriate.

ex: AIDS victims, the deaf, the disabled
watch for hidden bias
a speaker can send a baised message even when biased terms are avoided
verbal immediacy
using words and gestures to convey and stimulate feelings of cloeness and inclusion. use first person pronouns such as "we and us"
avoid profanity
showing irreverence or contempt for something that others find sacred or meaningful

ex: using the f word in a sermon
maintain rhythm and momentum
rephrase and restate key phrases to build momentum and rhythm.
use humor
use funny, relevant short stories and jokes. helps establish rapport with the audience.
create sound bites
sound bites are brief passages taken from a press release or presentation to be reprinted or taped for later news report
nonverbal emblems
gestures that have direct verbal translations that are wiedly understood.

ex: thumbs up as in "approval"
nonverbal adaptors
unintentional body movments used to reduce stress or relieve boredom

ex: pulling hair, playing with something in pocket
nonverbal illustrators
hand and arm movements that demonstrate and reinforce the meanings intended by verbal messages

ex: spreading hands apart to show length of a fish that you caught
look at your audience
eye contact acts as a powerful stimulus for elicting audience involvement. more likely the audeince will stay interested and attentive. eye contact obligates audience members to do something in return
keep audience interested
overall body movement is way a speaker can make a difference in how attentive or bored appears.

-confident and purposeful stride
-leaning into podium stresses important point
-direct, face to face body posture suggests active interaction and sense of inclusion or belonging to group
voice that never varies in rate volume or pitch
how high or low a voice sounds
vary speech rate
alternate talking fast and slow
display info in either a tabular or diagrammatic format.
a pictorial device used to illustrate quantitative relationships
line graph
a diagram that shows the relationship of how one varaible changes with respect to the other.
fever graph
show how the numerical value of something changes over time.
bar graph
displays quantities or values of data in a series of bars that correspond in height or length to the quantities represented.

not well suited for illustrating change over long period of time. more appropriate for showing differences in sets of data at one time or over s hort time span.
pie graphs
show the division of someething into component parts - percentages or proportions of the whole.
orderly arrangement of numbers, words, or symbols in rows and columns.

tables place statistics and other information into columns or a diagram.