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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

White Matter

White matter is the axons and glial cells, these are myelinated which is what causes them to look white and fatty. Pushed to the inside of the brain to connect everything

Gray Matter

All of the cell bodies in the brain. Pushed to the outside of the brain in order to create the cortex


The shell of the brain. Composed of layers: Dura Matter (hard), Arachoid, Sub-arachnoid (composed of only CSF and Ions), Pia Matter, and the Cortex

The shell of the brain. Composed of layers: Dura Matter (hard), Arachoid, Sub-arachnoid (composed of only CSF and Ions), Pia Matter, and the Cortex


Cerebral Spinal Fluid -- Full of ions to help with action potentials

What slice of the brain is this?

What slice of the brain is this?

This is a coronal slice of the brain

What slice of the brain is this?

What slice of the brain is this?

This is an Axial slice of the brain

What slice of the brain is this?

What slice of the brain is this?

This is a Saggital slice of the brain

What is the top of the brain called?

Dorsal or Superior

What is the back of the brain called

Caudal or Posterior

What is the front of the brain called?

Rostral or Anterior

What is the bottom of the brain called?

Ventral or Inferior

What does the Medulla do?

The Medulla is in charge of respiration and heart rate.

It connects with the sensory and motor cortices and contains pyramidal decussation which is where axons from the Left and right side of the brain cross to control that opposite side of the body

What does Pons do?

Pons is in charge of Arousal and REM sleep

It's the halfway point between the cerebellum and parts of the brain that tell your body what to do.


Rapid Eye Movement

REM resembles your conscious state

The state of sleep in which you dream most


Contains the most neurons in any part of the brain

controls coordination

also important for vision

doesn't initiate movement like the motor cortex, but rather makes the movements more precise


An alert system

Superior Colliculus: vision

Inferior Colliculus: auditory


"Grand central station of the brain"

All sensory info except smell goes through it

Lateral Geniculate: Info directly from eyes

Medial Geniculate: Info directly from ears

--Doesn't just relay info but also transforms it--


Link between CNS and the endocrine system

Circadian Rhythms

Releases hormones into the bloodstream

Works closely with the pituitary gland

Limbic System

The part of the brain containing the Hippocampus, the Amygdala, and the Basal Ganglia

And bit of an oversimplification of this part of the brain


Important in creating long term memories

connects to the parietal and occipital lobes in order to create visual memories


Important for fight, flight, food, and fornication

Emotional responses, arousal, hunger

Very primitive part of the brain

Basal Ganglia

In charge of lots of sensory motor actions in the body

has lots of dopamine receptors

People with Parkinson's Disease often have a lack of dopamine leading to their basal ganglia to not function well which hurts their fine motor skills


A very thin sheet of matter on the brain, crumpled in order to increase surface area and make communication between cells easier

(like wormholes... folding to make two points closer)

6 Layers:

layer 1: lots of axons and cell bodies

layer 4: input from thalamus

layer 5: output to thalamus

layer 6: first layer to develop (Meaning they are better at making long range connections, babies are making big broad connections of the world around them)

layers 1,2,3: develops last (short range connections... more refined thinking that develops when you're older)

Occipital Lobe

Mainly in charge of sight

Parietal lobe

Interprets and sorts info from the senses

Motor cortex

In charge of motor function

Somatosensory Cortex

In charge of sensory processing such as touch

Pre frontal cortex

Personality, decision making, speaking, planning, comprehending

Temporal Lobe

Sensory input, language processing, visual memory

Perception vs Processing

Perception: the experience

Processing: info going in and out (indiv. neurons firing)

Perceiving is experiencing the info that is being processed


Cons: bad at telling you when

Pros: Good at telling you where, safer than PET

Detection of blood oxygenation to produce a map of the brain that shows function

Using a powerful magnetic field, nuclei in the cell are aligned allowing for a measurement of blood oxygenation in cells of the brain

Cells that are being used more require more oxygen



Pros: good at telling you when

Cons: Not great at telling you where, difficult to perform because it requires putting electrodes directly on someones brain



Transcranial magnetic stimulation

Allows you to stimulate one area of the brain at a time by putting a tapper on the persons skull and sending magnetic pulses to that part of the brain, hindering function

Safe and accurate


Right OFA

The part of the brain that is essential for recognition of parts of a face

Single Unit Recording

Pro: Good at telling when and where

Con: measures the action potential of one cell, fairly small scale.

Used in research in the amygdala and emotional responses to happy and angry faces

It is shown that one specific cell increases firing when a happy face is shown and a different single cell increases firing when an angry face is shown


Induced Lesions

Pros: Very good at telling where something happens

Cons: Very enethical

Scientists purposely kill parts of a subjects brain to determine function by seeing how it changes behavior

Cannot be done on people

These induced lesions of thee amygdala caused monkeys to have a reduced fear of a snake



Finding people who are missing certain parts of their brain and seeing how their behavior differs from a full brained person



Pros: Good at telling you when

Cons: Bad at telling you where something happens

Listens to many cells and measures the dipoles of those cells

Allowed us to separate the processing and perception of a face

Perpendicular neurons


measures magnetic activity of neurons

Parallel neurons

Very precise at telling when

not good at telling where