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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What layers of the OSI model does Ethernet operate?
data link layer

physical layer
LLC sublayer

Handles communication between upper and lower layers. Typically between network software and device hardware.

What does the LLC sublayer do to the network protocol data which is typically an IPv4 packet?
Adds control information to help deliver the packet to destination node.
MAC sublayer
Implemented by hardware, typically in the computer's NIC.
Data encapsulation
MAC layer process which includes frame assembly and disassembly. When forming a frame, it adds trailer and header information to the PDU.
3 primary processes of Data Encapsulation
Frame delimiting


Error detection
Frame delimiting
Provides delimiters used to identify a group of bits that make up a frame. Provides synchronization between the transmitting and receiving nodes.

Adds the physical MAC address to the ethernet header on a frame.

Error detection

Adds a trailer with a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) of frame contents. When node receives packet, it creates another CRC and checks the frame's CRC for an identical match to know the frame is not corrupted.

Media Access Control

2nd Responsibility of MAC sublayer. Controls placement and removal of frames on the media. Communicates directly with Physical layer.

The primary fields in the Ethernet frame are?
Preamble and Start Frame Delimiter Fields
Destination MAC Address
Source MAC Address
Frame Check Sequence
Preamble and Start Frame Delimiter Fields
The Preamble (7 bytes) and Start Frame Delimiter (SFD) (1 byte), fields are used for synchronization between sending/receiving devices
Destination MAC Address Field

6-bye field identifying the recipient. Used by Layer 2 to determine if the frame was intended for the device by matching the device MAC address and the one in the frame.

Source MAC Address Field

6-byte field identifying the source device.

Length Field

Used by the Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field to ensure proper frame delivery. Also identifies which higher layer protocol is present.

Data Field

46-1500 Bytes, contains encapsulated data from the upper Layer 3 PDU or IPv4 packet.

Frame Check Sequence Field

Detects errors in the frame using CRC. Source node includes the results of a CRC in this field while the destination node checks this with their own CRC to identify any errors.

Fast-forward switching
Cut-Through switching variant. Lowest level of latency. Immediately forwards packet after reading the destination address.
Fragment-free switching
Cut-Through switching variant. Stores the first 64 bytes of the frame to error-check before forwarding. Slightly increases latency but reduces forwarding of corrupt packets, so it can be seen as a compromise between Store-and-Forward and Fast-Forward.
Port-based Memory Buffering

Frames are stored in queues linked to specific incoming and outgoing ports. They forward only when the entire packet is received.

Shared memory Buffering

Frames are stored in a common memory buffer, which all ports share. Allows different incoming and outgoing ports for a frame.

Fixed Configuration Switches

Switch with unmodifiable features (eg. fixed amount of ports)

Modular Switches

Switch with modifiable features, typically with larger chassis to support additional line cards with more ports.

Switch Virtual Interface (SVI)
Logical interface on a switch indicating a virtual local area network (VLAN)
Routed Port
Physical port on a Layer 3 switch configured to act as a router port.
Layer 3 Ether Channel
Logical interface on a Cisco device associated with a bundle of routed ports.
Which destination address is used in an ARP request frame?
What sub layer is responsible for communicating directly with the physical layer.
What is a characteristic of a contention-based access method?
It is a nondeterministic method.
A collision fragment, with less than 64 bytes in the frame
runt frame
Which two functions or operations are performed by the MAC sublayer?
It is responsible for Media Access Control.

It adds a header and trailer to form an OSI Layer 2 PDU.
What type of address is 01-00-5E-0A-00-02?
a MAC address that reaches a specific group of hosts.

The multicast MAC address is a special value that begins with 01-00-5E in hexadecimal. It allows a source device to send a packet to a group of devices.
Which term defines the processing capabilities of a switch by rating how much data can be processed per second?
Forwarding Rate
What is a characteristic of a contention-based access method?
It is a nondeterministic method.
What describes features or functions of the logical link control sublayer in Ethernet standards?
The data link layer uses LLC to communicate with the upper layers of the protocol suite.

Logical link control is implemented in software.
What is the purpose of the preamble in an Ethernet frame?
is used for timing synchronization
When would a switch record multiple entries for a single switch port in its MAC address table?
when another switch is connected to the switch port
The binary number 0000 1010 can be expressed as what in hexadecimal?

IPv4 Multi-cast Address range to

Store and Forward switching

Switch process where a packet is stored until the complete frame is received. It deletes the packets with errors to minimize bandwidth usage. It forwards the packets when the complete frame is received.

Cut-Through Switching

Switch process where a packet is immediately forwarded without error-checking. Corrupt packets are still forwarded and can take up bandwidth as a result. Two variants include: Fast-Forward and Fragment-Free.

Difference between Layer 2 and Layer 3 Switch

Layer 3 Switches can forward traffic based on IP as well as MAC address information, unlike a Layer 2 switch. They can also perform Layer 3 routing functions which reduce the need for dedicated routers.