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71 Cards in this Set

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What are the earliest wrtitings that mention Jesus?

Paul's Letters

Approximately when were the New Testament writings written?

100 A.D.

What is the primary language in which the New Testament was written?

Greek

What is the language that Jesus probably spoke to his followers?

Aramaic

What is the meaning of "gospel"?

Good News

Are the gospels in the bible biographies? Why or why not?

No, they are focused around the aspects of what Jesus did for others rather than who he was as a person or things that he experienced. Most of his Childhood is missing after birth.

What do we know about Jesus's childhood from the canonical (i.e. Biblical) Gospels?

He was born in Bethlehem to Mary and Joseph

What do the Canonical Gospels say about where Jesus grew up, whether he had siblings, who he married, and who killed him?

He grew up in Nazareth. Brothers: James, Joseph, Judas, and Simon. There is some debate on whether Jesus was married. Generally the assumption is that he was not married but there is reference to a woman folllowing him named Mary Magdalene whom he healed of seven demons. Jesus was sentenced to crucifixion by Pontius Pilate.

What ethical ideas did Jesus teach? How were his ethical views like those of the prophets?

Jesus primarily taught ethics in the form of empathy and asked people to place themselves in the place of others when weighing the morality of a choice. "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you."

What is the Word (Logos) of God according to the Gospel of John?

In a literal sense the Bible of "the Word" is God.

Which Gospels are called the Synoptics? Why are the Gospels called "synoptic"?

"Synoptic" of or forming a general summary or synopsis. The Synoptic Gospels are those of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, which describe events from a similar point of view, as contrasted with that of John.

Approximately how long was Jesus' Ministry?

At least 3 years.

Which facets of Jesus's life and teachings does John's Gospel leave out that the synoptics include?

John's book is where we find the resurrection of Lazarus and some additional information about Jesus outside of the parables but John does not mention things like the sermon on the mountain or Jesus's temptation.

What faces of Jesus's life and teaching do the synoptics include that John's Gospel excludes?

This question is a repeat of the prior one. Both questions ask what is in the synoptics that are not in John's Gospel. It might be fair to assume that this question meant to ask what John includes. I've included that in the previous answer.

Which canonical Gospel is generally supposed to be the earliest written?

Mark

What is the evidence for deciding which Gospel was written first?

Much of what Mark says is repeated in Matthew and Luke's books and where they add to what Mark said they tend to disagree or say completely separate things from one another.

What is the argument that convinces scholars that Matthew, Mark, and Luke are not three eyewitness accounts of the ministry of Jesus?

The latency between Jesus's death and the recording of his miracles suggests that if they had lived at the same time they were too young to have been writing or experienceing much.

What is Q in the context of the New Testament studies?

Q is a shortened form of a German word for "source" and in this context often refers to sayings of Jesus taken from some commen source for the Gospels (the source). This comes from the idea that similar nature of Gospels indicates a common source.

How does the Gospel of Thomas (not the infancy Gospel of Thomas) differ from the Gospels in the New Testament?

It is an account of the "sayings of Jesus" rather than a story of miracles he performed.

What is Tatian's Diatessaron? When was it written? What lesson can be learned from his project?

In attempting to place all the Gospels in one story and place events in order many were edited or paraphrased in order to more properly fit into the puzzle of the story. What can be gathered from this is that there are discrepancies in the accounts of the writers.

What Greek words in the New Testament are translated "love"? What is the difference between these words?

Agape: feelings of compassion that stem from admiration of moral superiority.


Phileo: this type of love is friendship and the accompanying respect.


Storge: The love of family or very close friends.

Which of the canonical Gospels tells the story of those who witnessed the resurrection? (L)

None, there were no direct witnesses to Jesus standing up pushing the stone out of the way.

What are the similarities and differences among the Gospels in the accounts of the discovery of the empty tomb?

John says Mary goes to the tomb alone.


Matthew says Jesus appears to all the women before the disciples are told.


Mark says Mary tells the disciples and then Jesus appears to her.


Luke and John say there are two angels while Mark and Matthew say there is only one.


John and Luke say Jesus is only wearing strips of linen while the other two claim he was wearing a full shroud.


Luke says there are only appeances of Jesus around Jerusalem and Mark and Matthew seem to agree on Galilee.

How does Paul's list of witnesses to the resurrected Jesus (1Cor. 15) differ form the Gospels' accounts?

Paul lists himself, Peter, and James

What does Paul say about the discovery of the empty tomb? (L)

He doesn't say anything about it. Many people think he implies it was empty but he also seems to leave out an implication that Jesus was actually physically resurrected and instead says he "appeared" to Peter, James, and Himself.

After Jesus was no longer physically present, how did the early Christian community answer the question,"Who speaks for Jesus?"?

The Apostles

What questions were debated at the encumencial councils of the church?

These councils attempted to set official interpretations of scripture and solidly proclaim what is to be believed.

Who decided what books would be in the Christian Bible?

Athanasius of Alexandiria created a list of 66 books he considered to be universally accepted as Canon in the Bible.

To when do the earliest extant Christian Bibles date?

In the 5000s A.D.

What are the three major divisions of Christianity?

Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant

When and why did these divisions take place?

1054 (medieval times) the ecumenil church broke away in what was known as the "Great Schism." This created the Eastern Orthodox Church. The "Western Schism occured in the 16th Century as the product of Martin Luther's "95 Theses" and is largely attributed to the birth of the printing press as a way to disseminate information. This protestant reformation would produce the 3rd major branch of Christianity.

What are the twin themes of the Protestant Reformations?

Questions of doctrine and authority

How did the Protestant Reformation change the way many Christians understand the Bible?

Partially by the translation and reprinting of the Bible into English. Most of the time people of Europe had to take the word of someone who read Latin to gather any information at all. With the Catholic Church no longer being the sole authority on the interpretation the right to read and interpret expanded as a personal right and understanding.

Why did early creeds of Christendom omit "Belief in the Bible" as an article of Faith?

For a brief time there was no difference between the Christian and Jewish Bible. To add to this, most of the population for a very long time could not read and to top this the Bible was not written in a language common to all Christians meaning that general impressions of the Bible were the best that any person would be able to gather. Additionally, the Bible in its most recent forms was an amalgamation of books that would later be filtered, censored, and consolidated.

What were the great empires that dominated the regions surrounding the Middle East in the time of Muhammad?

Primarily tribal groups with the largest tribes being the Banu Qais and the Banu Kalb. The banu Qais were loosely allied with the Byzantine Empire and the Banu Kalb were loosely allied with the Persian Empire.

What is the meaning of "Allah"?

God

How are the words "Islam," "Muslim," and "Salam" related.

Islam is the religion. Muslim is a word for a follower of Islam, and Salam is an Arabic word for peace, a name for God, and a greeting. Religion - People of that religion - Who those people worship.

When and where did Muhammad live? What language did he speak?

Muhammad lived in Mecca and spoke Arabic.

Was Muhammad Married? (To whom?) How many children did he have?
Muhammad had roughly thirteen wives, two of which are debated to be either entertainers or wives. He had four daughters and two sons, of which only one daughter named Fatima survived.

How was Muhammad called to be a prophet?

He was visited by the Angel Gabriel.

What was the word spoken to Muhammad by the angel Gabriel?

Al-Alaq: Read

Is the Muslim calendar lunar or solar? When does the Muslim calendar begin? With what event is the beginning of the Muslim calendar associated?

Lunar. The jouney of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 A.D.

How were Muhammad's ethical teaching like those of Judaism and Christianity?

Charity and temperance are highly emphasized with much of the old testament still being valued in Islam.

Muhammad spoke of greater and lesser jihads. What did he mean?

Jihad is a term generally meaning a struggle against unbelievers. In this case a lesser refers to a military struggle while a greater refers to an internal struggle against baser impulses.

How did Muhammad characterize "believers"?

Muhammad seems to have thought that true believers proclaim their belief rather than holding it in silence. Additionally, Muslims believe that believers follow the 5 pillars and some have other core beliefs stemming from other texts about Muhammad's life.

What is the Kaaba? Where is it? According to the Muslims, who built it and rebuilt it?

The Kaaba is the oldest mosque in the world and is regarded to have first been built by Abraham near the Zamzam Well. This cuboid building is now at the Center of Masjid al-Haram mosque in Mecca. It ws rebuilt by Abd Allah in al-Zubayr after it's flooding in 1629 A.D.

Who are "the people of the book"? What "book" does this expression refer to?

This is the expression used to refer to the Hebrew people and the book reffered to as the Torah.

What are the five pillars of Islam?

1. Shahadah: There is only God and Muhammad is God's messenger.


2. Salat: There must be prayer five times per day.


3. Zakat: Two and a half percent of ones income must be given to those in need.


4. Sawn: Followers must show self control and fast during the month of Ramadan.


5. Hajj: If they can, each person must visit Mecca in their lifetime at least one time.

How are these "pilllars" reflected in the life of Muhammad?

Muhammad spoke of and named these pillars making the first a given. He was Muhammad and often retreated into the hills for several nights at a time to pray and he was known to interact civilly with his wives but there is little reference to him giving wealth to the poor even though one of his wives was considerably wealthy. Muhammad's fasting is not mentions int he Quran but it is mentioned in the Sunna. Muhammad both lived in and later returned to Mecca making the final pillar inevitable as well.

What is Hadith?

Essentially proverbs and accounts of Muhammad's daily life that serve as guidance for Muslims along with Sunna (for the Sunni) outside of the Quran.

Accourding to Muslims, what is the difference between a messenger and a prophet?

These two terms are used interchangeably but there are considered to roughly 135 prophets and Muhammad is the most frequently referred as the messenger.

According to Muslims who are the great prophets and what scriptures are associated with them?

Muhammad (Quran)


Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and that which was received by Moses ( Old Testament) and Jesus (New Testament)

Name some of the Biblical personalities that appear in the Quran.

Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Moses and Jesus

The Quran speaks of "People of the Book" - Who are they and what is the book referred to?
Refer to Islam: 13

How do Christian and Muslim views of Jesus differ? How are they similar?

Muslims see Jesus as another prophet foretelling the coming of Muhammad. They consider him worthy of learning from like all the other prophets but where he and Muhammad conflict Muhammad is considered superior. Consider the use of force for either: while Jesus stopped a stoning, Muhammag took Mecca by military force.

What is the meaning of "Shariah"?

Laws and duties based on the Quran

In what language is the Koran?

Arabic. This is one of the reasons that it first appealed to the Middle East. Being written in a local language it finally menat that there could be access toa relgious text and coupled with a more localized story and relatable personality this religion was not lacking in appeal.

What is a Surah? With what phrase does all but one Surah of the Quran begin?

Bismi-llahi r-rahmani r-rahim: In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. The exception is the ninth.

What is the word of God according to Muslims?
The word of Muhammad, Abraham, Ishmael, Issac, Jacob and that which was received by Moses and Jesus.

Approximately when did the Quran achieve the form in which we now possess it?

Between 653 and 656 A.D.

Why do Muslims say that no translation of the Quran can be considered the Koran?
Translating the Quran requires interpretation and interpretation. This is a problem for two reasons with the first being that Muslims consider the Quran to be in its own perfect and miraculous form, and the second being that Arabic words may have a range of meanings make a true and accurate translation very difficult.
Why do Muslims consider it deeply pious to memorize the entire Quran?
Memorizing this text is literally being able to remember the entirety of the word of God.

What is the origin for the difference between Sunni and Shi'a Muslims?

Immediately following Muhammad's death the split happened as a question of who would lead Islam. The Shi'a believe in the son-in-law of Muhammad, Ali as the rightful new leader.

How does the concept of an Imam differ between Sunni and Shi'a Muslims?

Imams to the Sunni are most commonly under state control while Shi'a Imams tend to be independent.

Are most Muslims world-wide Sunni or Shi'a?

Sunni

What is Sufism?

Turuqs represent the third sect of Islam with substantial influences of pre-Islamic tradition in their teachings. They operate in many independent groups with spiritual leaders at the center. Sufis are the more abstain from worldly pleasures. Sufism is often considered a subgroup of the Sunnis but some who practice consider themselves seperate from Islam altogether.

After the death of Muhammad, where did his followers spread Islam and how quicly did this happen?

Islam was already spreading during his lifetime and quite fast. After his death as mentioned above there was conflict on the leadership of Islam but it tended to spread into Africa and Asia. The first Western resistance Islam met was from the invasion of Egypt by Napoleon.

Are all or most Muslims Arabs or from the Middle East?

No, many Muslims are actually African or from the Far East.

Can most Muslims read the Quran in the original?

No. Literacy is still developing aspect of culture in many Muslim areas.

What is the most populous Muslim country in the world?

Indonesia

What is the difference between Islam and Islamism?

Islam is a general concept of this religion somewhat like Christianity is a general concept with a few core beliefs and most of them up to interpretation. Islamism is the fundamental islam. Islamism believes in enforcing laws of the Quran as written and that where Islam and modern culture seem to conflict Islam should always win.