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12 Cards in this Set

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How motivating is mom's choice? iyeganr and pepper

Children ages 7 to 9 were put into 3 conditions

1. Experimenter chose anagram for them

2. Mother chose anagram for them

3. Children chose anagram

Asian American children completed more anagrams when mother chose anagram than for European American children.

Gelman and Markman (1986). Will 4 year olds use category membership or perceptual similarity to generalize information about a property?

Choice task

Look at this bird

Most children chose category response.

What is the Woodward paradigm (1998)?

Habituation and preferential looking

Children 6 years looked longer at new goal event more often than new path or habituated event.

Experimenter reached for ball then reached for ball in new location and then reached for bear.

Graham, Kilbreath, and Welder (2004)

How do 13 month olds generalize information about a property?

No name-Tried hard with high-similarity object only

Different name-Tried hard with high similarity object only

Same name-Tried hard with both objects

Even 13 month olds expect non-obvious properties to generalize to new category members, whether categories are perceptual or named.

Baumrind (1971)

What are the types of parenting styles?

Authoritarian: Because I said so types

Authoritative: Strict, but explain reasons, encourage child input

Permissive: Don't set or enforce clear rules, warm and accepting

Rejecting-Neglecting:Discourage emotional dependency, rejecting

What characteristics of children are associated with parenting styles.

Authoritative children more achievement oriented, less hostile and resistant, independent than children of authoritarian families

More dominant, purposeful, and achievement oriented than permissive children

Tended to be more friendly and cooperative than children of Rejecting-Neglecting families

Does the effect of physical discipline depend on culture Lansford et al (2005)?

Yes anxiety levels of children in Thailand who experience high physical discipline is higher than Kenya children who experience high physical discipline. However, with low physical discipline Kenya has higher anxiety levels than Thailand children.

Hirschfeld (1995)

Do preschoolers understand that skin color is innate? Do children essentialize race.

3 year olds don't consistently choose "nature" answers

But 4 and 5 year olds do

Between ages of 3 and 4 children begin to understand that skin color is innate, not the result of experience.

Story:White parents have a baby who is immediately adopted by a black family. She grows up and is now ready to go to school. Which picture shows girl grown up and ready to go to school

Does generic language encourage essentialism?

Rhodes, Leslie

4 year olds

Pictures showed "Zarpies"

Zarpies were either described in generic or specific terms or weren't labelled at all.

Both adults and children gave more essentialist responses when they learned a property from a generic sentence. It was true for induction and inheritance questions, and for participants explanations

Sally Ann Task

Children younger than 4 can't reason about others' false beliefs Sally has a basket Ann has a box. She puts marble into basket Ann puts marble into box Sally comes back. Where will she look. Box or basket

15 month olds can reason about false beliefs


Gelman & Bloom (Bloom)

Do participants consider creator's intent choosing what to call something?

All age groups were more likely to name the object when it was made intentionally and the substance when it was made accidentally

Young children take intent into account when naming objects.