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62 Cards in this Set

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Topic Historical Founders :
Major themes from early pilosophers' views....
The Universal truth to themes of early pilosophers is what children are and what children need.
-Enduring insights
-Unscientific methods

Historical Founders:
- Greek philosopher
-Interest of how children's development is influenced by their nature and their nurturing. (on going theme today)
-Aristotle view: agreed with plato discipline was necessary, BUT he was more concerned with fitting child rearing to the needs of an individual child.
- Aristotle believed that all knowledge comes from experience and that the mind of an infant is like a writing tablet on which nothing has yet been written.
Historical Founders:
-Greek philosopher
-Also interested in how children's development is influenced by their nature and their nurturing.
-Especially concerned with boy behavior. (concerned about the welfare of society from children)
-Plato Emphasized self-control and discipline as the most important goals of education.
-Plato view: believed that children are born with innate knowledge.
Historical Founders:
Aristotle and Plato
4th Century, B.C. Welfare of society depends on children’s being raised properly
Medieval Times
Children were mini adults
Reformation 1500s
Doctrine of original sin
Age of Enlightenment 1600s
John Locke
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
English philosopher John
French philosopher Jean
John Lock
-Child = tabula rasa = Blank Slate
-First instill discipline,then gradually increase freedom
-Big question was how parents and the general society can best promote child development.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
-Child = noble savage= symbolizing the innate goodness of humanity when free from the corrupting influence of civilization.
-Parents and society should give children maximum freedom from the beginning
19th and 20th Century Child development becomes a formal field of inquiry.
Sigmund Freud and John Watson: first theories based on research.
-The social Reforms: Laws that regulate work rules. ex. Coal Mines
-Charles Darwin's theory of Evolution:widely held notion that all life is related and has descended from a common ancestor.
Sigmund Freud
-Psychosexual Stages of Development
-Frued concluded that biological drives, especially sexual ones, were a crucial influence on development.
John Watson
- did experiments with the effects of reward and punishment on behavior. (used animals to experiment with)
- Watson concluded that children's development is controlled by environmental conditions, especially the rewards and punishments that follow particular behaviors.
Erik Erikson
-Id Ego and Super Ego
-He expanded Freud's theory with more stages.
Enduring themes
Nature and Nurture
Continuous vs. Discontinuous development
The active child
Sociocultural Context
Nature and Nurture
-Nature Biological endowment, especially the genes we receive from our parents
-Nurture Wide range of environments, physical and social, that influence development
Werner’s Study 1955
-698 children born in Kauai, Hawaii
-Data: birth histories and multiple aspects of their lives for 30+ years
-Biological and environmental factors combine to influence child development
-Quality of home environment more influential than biological risk factors: Prenatal/birth problems consistently related to impaired psychological functioning only if children also experienced poor rearing conditions
-Majority of children with birth complications and adverse family circumstances developed serious problems by age 10
But about one-third developed into successful young adults
-These resilient children often were befriended by an adult outside the family
Continuity vs. Discontinuity
-Continuous development: Age-related changes occur gradually
ex. A trees growth
-Discontinuous development: Age-related changes include occasional large shifts Children of different ages seem qualitatively different
ex. a caterpillars growth
sociocultural context influences on development
-Sociocultural context: Physical, social, cultural, economic, and historical circumstances that make up child’s environment
-Differences within and between cultures
ex. the different sleeping habits of children in different cutures
US children have own crib/room
Other places children sleep in same bed as parents for a long time.
Research Strategies
-Scientific method & alternative approaches
-Data gathering methods
-Correlational and experimental designs
-Special designs for studying development
Scientific Method
-Testing hypotheses or theories
-Beliefs as hypotheses (educated guesses, predictions)
-Testing these beliefs: Start with a question
-Formulate a hypothesis regarding the question
-Develop a method for testing the hypothesis
-Use the data yielded by the method to draw a conclusion regarding the hypothesis
Scientific Method (Quantitative)
-Psychosocial constructs can be identified and measured
Research Purposes:
-Prediction and/or causal explanations
Research Approach:
-Testing a hypothesis/theory
-Formal/Standardized instruments and methods
Qualitative Approaches
-Variables are complex, interwoven, difficult to measure
Research Purposes:
-Understanding meaning of experience
Research Approach:
-May result in hypotheses and theory
-Flexible and emerging design
-Intensive study of smaller samples
Pros & Cons of methods of gathering data
Naturalistic Observation:
PROS:Describe behavior in everyday setting
Can observe social interaction processes
CONS:Difficult to isolate factors
Hard to study infrequent or private behaviors
Structured Observation:
Pros:All children observed in same setting
Research can control what happens
Cons: Reveals less about subjective experience
Contrived setting
Interview/Self Report:
Pros: Reveals subjective experience
Less expensive
Cons: Relies on language ability
May be abstract
Limited response options
Reports may be biased
Memory inaccurate or incomplete
Evaluating Data Collection Methods & Tools
Inter-rater reliability-the amount of agreement in the observation of different raters who witness the same behavior.
Test-retest reliability- the degree of similarity of a child's performance on two or more occasions.
Internal- the degree to which effects observed within experiments can be attributed to the variables that the researchers intentionally manipulated.
External- the degree to which results can be generalized beyond the particulars of the research.
Designs for studying change
-Longitudinal: a research study that involves repeated observations of the same items over long periods of time, often many decades
-Cross-sectional:that involve observation of some subset of a population of items all at the same time, in which, groups can be compared at different ages with respect of independent variables, such as IQ and memory.
Active Children theme
the child as a source of his or her own development
Ethical concerns
Example- Baby Albert
-More vulnerable to psychological harm
-Difficult or impossible to evaluate what participation means
-Difficulty understanding research procedures
-Informed decisions about participation
Nature Vs. Nurture Deeper look
the genetic constitution of an individual organism.
Phenotype:the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
Norm of reaction: all the phenotypes that can theoretically result from a given genotype in relation to all the environment in which it can survive and develop.
ex. a child with a given genotype might develop quit differently in a loving, supportive family that he or she would in an alienated, abusive family.
Genotype-environment interactions
-study showing an effect of abusive parenting on children with particular genotype.
-THE QUESTION: why some children who experienced severe maltreatment become violent and antisocial while others in same conditions did not.
-Results: the importance of a combination of environmental factors and genetic ones - possessing a particular variant of an X-linked gene known to inhibit brain chemicals associated with aggression (MAOA gene).
Behavior Genetics
the science concerned with how variation in behavior and development results from the combination of genetic and environmental factors.
Behavior Genetic Research Design : Genetic similarity correlations, family-study design
ex. twin studies/ adoption studies
identical twins who grew up together vs. identical twins who did not grow up together.
refers to anything (characteistics, traits, ect.) influenced by heredity.
Study: they estimate the amount of the variation among a given population of people that is due to differences in their genes.
ex. behavior patterns should run in families.
Shared Environment
- Sharing an environment, growing up together in the same family.
- the effects of a shared environment is based on the degree of similarity among adoptive siblings- biologically unrelated who grew up together.
Non-shared Environment
- the effects have to do with the fact that even children who grow up in the same family do not have all their experiences in common- either inside or outside the family.
ex. within a family siblings may have quite different experiences bc of their birth orders.
Theories of Cognitive Development
-Thinking, perception, understanding, imagining, learning, remembering, knowing, attention, reasoning, problem solving, intelligence
Four stages of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor (birth – 2 yrs)

Preoperational (2 – 7 yrs)

Concrete operational (7 – 12 yrs)

Formal operational (12 yrs – adulthood)
Reflexes = building blocks
Stumbling into learning
Coordinated movement
Goal-directed behavior
Object permanence
Mental representation
ex. the A not B task
Huge increase in mental representation
Language = labels for mental representation
Make believe play

Egocentrism 
ex. class inclusion task
Are there more roses or more flowers? They say more roses bc they don't realize they are all flowers they concentrate on which there is more of.
Concrete Operational
Logical thinking begins!
Mental representations more complex
Thinking reorganized so CAN consider more than one dimension at a time
Example: conservation concept

Concrete, direct experience
Formal Operational
Abstract, hypothetical thinking
The thoughts of youth are long, long thoughts.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Scientific reasoning

NOT Universal
Not everyone reaches it
Less likely if not schooled
Cultural differences?
Major Criticism of Piaget
Accurate timetable?

Distinct developmental stages?

Underestimates early competence?

Vague on processes and mechanism

What about social components??
Sociocultural Theories
Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934)

Children as social beings
Culture shapes thinking
Thought = internal speech
Teaching and Learning
Comparing Theories
Piaget:Child is active scientist
Information Processing: Child is active problem solver
Core Knowledge:Child has innate competence
Sociocultural:Child as sociocultural participant
Brain Development
Cerebral Cortex
Corpus callosum
a specialized cell transmitting nerve impulses; a nerve cell
the long threadlike part of a nerve cell along which impulses are conducted from the cell body to other cells.
a short branched extension of a nerve cell, along which impulses received from other cells at synapses are transmitted to the cell body.
a junction between two nerve cells, consisting of a minute gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter.
Cerebral Cortex
the outer layer of the cerebrum (the cerebral cortex), composed of folded gray matter and playing an important role in consciousness
Corpus callosum
a broad band of nerve fibers joining the two hemispheres of the brain.
Cerebral lateralization
the phenomenon that each hemisphere of the brain is specialized for different modes of processing.
First Stage In the Brian Creating Baby
Neurogenesis Prenatal proliferation of neurons

Migration Cells move to ultimate destination
Second Stage Making Connections
Synaptogensis Wildly exuberant creation of neural connections

Prenatal – age 3 (approx)
Neural connections increase greatly!!
Stage 3: Cleaning up and Getting organized
Synaptic Pruning
Elimination of “synaptic syperfluity”

Different times, different places

Starting after birth, through adolescence
Stage 4 
Changes in the Adolescent Brain The Second WAVE
Prefrontal cortex
Attention, impulses, planning, priorities
Increased myelination (gray matter)
Proliferation of synapses at puberty
Pruning after puberty
The capacity of the brain to be affected by experience
Secular Trends
Marked changes over generations, resulting from environmental changes such as improvement in health and nutrition

Two examples:
Increase in average height
Earlier menstruation
Secular Trend: 
Childhood Obesity
The proportion of U.S. children who are overweight has tripled in past 2 decades
Genetic factors:
susceptibility to gaining weight
perhaps amount consumed
Environmental factors:
portion sizes
sedentary pursuits
Health problems and social problems
Prenatal Development
Conception -2 weeks Germinal
zygote becomes implanted in the uterine wall.
Rapid Cell division
Major development occurs in organs and systems of the body
-cell division
-cell migration
-cell differentiation
-Cell death
Continued Development
Physical structure
increase levels of learning, sensory experiences
Fetal Experiences
Sight and Touch - experience tactile stimulation
Taste - fetus has a sweet tooth
Smell- amniotic fluid take odors to what the mother eats.