Cultural Influence On Child Development

Superior Essays
Over the years, many child psychologists and theorists have developed theories as to why and how children develop. Many theories build on pervious theories as psychologists learn more about infants and toddlers. Shonkoff & Phillips have developed 10 core concepts that help guide research and the development of new theories. These principles “...focus on the underlying principles that guide the developmental process.” (Shonkoff & Phillips) The purpose of this paper is to prove that theories that have been proven valid fit into these core concepts.
Development is dynamic and shaped by interactions between biology and experience
Children develop depending on their environment, but that does not mean they are passive in their development. “Human
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According to Shonkoff and Phillips, “…culture provides a virtual how-to manual for rearing children and establishing role expectations for mothers, fathers, grandparents, older siblings, extended family members and friends” (Shonkoff and Phillips, 2000). Psychologist Vygotsky developed the Sociocultural Theory which focuses on how culture is passed from one generation to the next. (Berk, 2012) As stated above, he believed that children learn through interaction with adults, he stressed the importance of culture because children differed from culture to culture. Children were taught skills that were valued in their culture. (Berk, …show more content…
Many developmental or behavioral issues can be traced back to relationship issues between the parents and their infant. “Intimate and caring relationships are fundamental mediators of successful human adaption.” (Shonkoff & Phillips, 2000) Healthy attachment shows why relationships are so important in the early years of life. Through Harlow’s monkey experiment it was confirmed that infants can form attachment to whoever or whatever gives them comfort when they are distressed. (Berk, 2012) Secure attachment has been linked to higher measures of persistence and self-reliance and higher ratings on friendship and leadership qualities. (Crain, 2012) The importance of healthy relationships has been supported by the study of institutionalized infants by Rene Spitz. She found that when infants do not have the opportunity to establish a close tie to a care giver babies “lost weight, wept, withdrew from their surroundings, and had difficulty sleeping.” (Berk, 2012) If there was no change depression and the inability to form close bonds was evident in the

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