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17 Cards in this Set

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What is a mole?

A unit used in chemistry to measure amounts of substances on a large scale

What relates moles and relative atomic mass?

One mole of an substance is equal to its relative atomic mass in grams

What relates moles and relative formula mass?

One mole of substance is equal to its relative formula mass in grams

What is empirical formula?

The simplest whole number ratio of Atoms of each element in a compound individually

e.g. C2H4 becomes CH2

How do you work out the empirical formula of a compound?

Relative formula mass÷ Relative atomic mass of each element in the compound. Then simplify the ratio by dividing by the smallest result

If the ratio is not an integer, what do you do?

Multiply both sides by the same number in order to make them both integers

What is yield?

The amount of products that are created by the reactants

What does this symbol mean?

It is a reversible reaction (products are turned into reactants)

Why does the products mass not always equal the reactants?

1. Some products may be lost when separated from reactant mixture


2. Reaction may be reversible


3. Reactants may react different to how is expected

What is the formula for percentage yield?

(Amount produced÷ Max amount possible) x 100

Give four main ways of measuring rates of reaction

1. Measuring gas given off


2. Measuring Reactants mass loss


3. Time taken to disappear


4. Time taken for cross to disappear

What are the two formulas for rate of Reaction?

1. Amount of reactant used÷ time taken for reaction to be completed


2. Amount of product formed÷ Time taken for reaction to be completed

What is activation energy?

The minimum amount of energy required for reaction to take place when particles collide

How do the concentration, temperature, pressure and surface area affect the rate of Reaction?

As any of these factors increase, so does the rate of reaction

What are catalysts?

Substances that speed up reactions but remain unchanged themselves

Give four pros of using catalysts

1. Less energy is used


2. Speeds up reactions


3. Reusable


4. Lower production costs

Give two cons of using catalysts

1. Can be toxic


2. Can be expensive