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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1. What was the first Brazilian economic cycle based on?
2. Brazil fell into the Portuguese zone of exploration and settlement by virtue of what?
Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494
3. What was the principal activity of the bandeirantes?
The capture of indigenous slaves
4. What hampered the resistance of Brazilian natives to conquest and enslavement?
The tendency of tribes to war with each other
5. How did the Jesuits arouse the hostility of the Brazilian planters?
By their program for settling indigenous converts in Jesuit mission villages
6. The principal threat to Portuguese sovereignty over Brazil came from which European nation?
7. The decline of the Brazilian sugar industry by the late 17th century was primarily because of competition from where?
Competition from more efficient Caribbean plantations and refineries
8. The 18th century mineral cycle initiated a major shift in Brazil’s center of economic gravity from where to where?
North to south
9. What was an important element in Pombal’s effort to reconquer Brazilian markets for Portugal?
Formation of companies with monopolies of trade with particular regions of Brazil
10. The government of Portuguese Brazil differed from that of the Spanish Indies in what way?
Much smaller scale of the Portuguese administration
11. In colonial Brazil, great landowners often enhanced their personal influence how?
With the immense power attached to the office of capitão mor
12. Individuals in Brazil tended to be classified racially on the basis of their what?
Their social and economic status
13. The view that Brazilian slavery was milder than slavery in other colonies was largely fostered by whose writings?
Gilberto Freyre
14. The most famous Brazilian fugitive slave settlement was where?
15. The War of the Mascates was a struggle between whom?
A struggle between Brazilian-born mazombos and peninsulars
16. Treatment of enslaved Africans in Brazil was especially harsh because slave owners were able to do what?
To coldly calculate that they could double their profits by working slaves to death
51. What was an important function of the Council of the Indies?
To nominate all high colonial officials to the king
52. What was an important function of oidores?
To make regular tours of inspection of their provinces
53. What was the worst abuse of the corregidor’s authority?
The mandatory purchase of goods from him by the natives of his district
54. When did the sale of colonial offices by the crown become the standard practice?
Beginning in the reign of Philip II
55. Why did Philip II favor the secular over the regular clergy?
Because he disliked the independent spirit shown by the regulars regarding Spain’s policy toward indigenous peoples
56. Which religious order was the wealthiest in the Spanish colonies?
The Society of Jesus
57. From an economic point of view, which missionary effort was the most successful?
The Jesuit missions in Paraguay
58. The great majority of cases tried by the colonial Inquisition had to do with type of
Offenses against morality
59. What did the Laws of the Indies assign mestizos of legitimate birth?
Assigned mestizos of legitimate birth equal status with whites
510. The patronato real refers to royal control over what?
Control over ecclesiastical affairs in Spain and the colonies
511. What was one legacy of the colonial period for independent Latin America?
The contrast between such nominal concentration of power and the effective supremacy of great landowners on the local level
512. What was the residencia?
Judicial review of an official’s conduct at the end of his term of office
513. Who were viceroys and captains-general?
The supreme military and civil authority in the Spanish colonies
514. Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz was a literary giant whose intellectual achievements were fostered by what?
By convent life that freed women from male domination and exploitation
515. What was the censo?
A common method for landowners to endow religious institutions by mortgaging estates
516. Limpieza de sangre and the colonial hierarchy of castas shows that the idea of race was what?
Socially constructed to rationalize and preserve the power of a tiny ruling elite