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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Cognitive Factors

Personal mindset, personal expectations, thoughts and beliefs about oneself

Emotional Factors

happiness, fear, love, anger, success, accomplishment

Primary Drives

needed for survival (food, love, sex)

Secondary Drives

learned drives that represent biological needs (money, praise)

Drive (Reduction) Theory

we are motivated to stay in homeostasis and control biological factors

Incentive Theory

we are motivated by external goals

Evolutionary Theory

based on natural selection and reproductive capacity (mate selection)

Instinct Theory

automatic involuntary and unlearned behaviors

Arousal Theory

people are motivated to maintain their optimal level of arousal

Lateral Hypothalamus

feeding center "ON" switch

Ventromedial Hypothalamus/Nucleus

Satiety center, "OFF" switch


feeling of fullness

Paraventricular Nucleus (PVN)

controls the selection of specific foods and blood sugar levels


low levels cause irritability, shakiness, and hunger


secreted by the pancreas, reduces appetite


released by empty stomach, promotes feelings of hunger


delivers satiety signals to the brain, resulting in decreased hunger


Produced by fat cells, controls the long term regulation of hunger, high=fat storage and less hunger


the better the food tastes, the more you eat

Body Mass Index (BMI)

kilograms/meters squared

sensitivity to external cues

obese people are extrasensitive to external clues that effect hunger and not very sensitive to internal physiological hunger cues

Set Point Theory

natural point in stability for body weight

Intrinsic Motivation

desire to attain internal satisfaction

Extrinsic Motivation

desire to attain external rewards


person's interpretation of a situation

Affective Forecasting

effort to predict one's emotional reactions to future events

Autonomic Nervous System

sympathetic - the reaction

parasympathetic - calms back down

Limbic System

center for emotion, contains the amygdala

Prefrontal Cortex

voluntary controls of emotion and understanding emotions

Mirror Neurons

play a role in empathy

Right Hemisphere

the more emotional side of the brain

Pyramidal Motor System

voluntary muscle movement (fake smile)

Extrapyramidal Motor System

involuntary muscle movement (genuine smile)

Facial Feedback Hypothesis

facial muscles send signals to the brain in order to recognize what emotion one is feeling

Social Referencing

looking to others to guide emotional reactions

James-Lange Theory

the experience of emotion depends on your emotional responses, different patterns of activation are seen as different emotions by the brain

stimulus -> physical response ->emotion

Cannon-Bard Theory

emotion occurs when the thalamus sends signals SIMULTANEOUSLY to the cortex and ANS

stimulus -> brain(cortex) ->emotion and physical response (at the same time)

Schachter's Two-Factor Theory

Schachter-Singer Theory

emotion depends on the interpretation of physical responses


good stress

Primary Appraisal

Does it impact me? How much so?

Secondary Appraisal

How am I going to deal with it?

Acute Stressors

short in duration, have a clear endpoint

Chronic Stressors

long term with no clear end in sight


a choice must be made between two desirable options


a choice must be made between two undesirable options


a decision must be made whether or not to pursue a single goal that has attractive and unattractive qualities

Multiple Approach-Avoidance

a choice must be made between two or more options with each having pros and cons

Life Change Unit

the value of the stressor

Social Readjustment Rating Scale

stress score = sum of LCU's (whose values are predetermined)... high LCU = high stress

Life Experiences Survey

adds the opportunity to give personal value to LCU's and the ability to add additional stressors to the list

Effects of Emotional Arousal

Yerkes-Dodson Law

looks at the relationship between emotional reaction to a stressor and the ability to cope with the stress, amount of arousal needed/beneficial (depends on task)

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) (Hans Selye)

alarm, resistance, exhaustion

Phase 1: Alarm Reaction

short lived, fight or flight, sympathetic system working hard

Phase 2: Resistance

provides energy to fight the stressor

Phase 3: Exhaustion

depletion of energy, more likely to get sick

Brain-Body Pathways

controlled by hypothalamus and endocrine system


part of ANS response


part of the endocrine system, help protect your body from stress

Ruminative Thinking

continual interruption of thoughts, can't get the stressor out of your head


over-exaggerate the potential consequences of a stressor


physical and emotional exhaustion caused by chronic stress


to bounce back from difficulties successfully

Type A Personality

experience more stress, prone to stress related health problems, strong, competitive, ambitious, perfectionist, time-consciouss

Type B Personality

still value success just not as observably, they go about getting it differently, relaxed, patient, easygoing


white blood cells, defend the body against disease and foreign material, elevated when you are sick


formed in the bone marrow, mark foreign and initiate inactivation


formed in the thymus, produce antibodies that destroy marked cells

Natural Killer Cells

antitumor and anti-viral, act on their own to both mark and kill cells


engulf and digest foreign material (process called phagocytosis) the clean up crew / pacman

Problem-Focused Coping

dealing with the stressor at its source

Emotion-Focused Coping

focus on the response (keep your mind off of it)

Cognitive Restructuring

you will experience less stress if you change your interpretation of the stressor

Emotional Coping Strategies

gaining social support

Behavioral Coping Strategies

changing one's behavior to minimize the negative effects of the stressor

Physical Coping Strategies

exercise, meditation, progressive relaxation, medicine