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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define: Matter
Anything that occupies space and has mass
Define: Element
Pure substance that can not be broken down into other substances by chemical or physical means
Define: Trace Element
Element critical to health that makes up less than 0.01% of body mass
Define: Compound
Substance containing 2 or more elements chemically combined in a fixed ratio
Define: Atom
Smallest particle of an element
Define: Proton
Subatomic particle with a single unit of positive electric charge
Define: Electron
Subatomic particle with a single unit of negative electric charge
Define: Neutron
Subatomic particle that has no charge (is electrically neutral)
Define: Nucleus
In an atom, the central core that contains protons and neutrons
Define: Atomic Number
Number of protons in an atom's nucleus; is unique for each element
Define: Isotope
One of several forms of an element, each containing the same number of protons in their atoms but a different number of neutrons
Define: Radioactive Isotope
Isotope in which the nucleus decays (breaks down) over time, giving off radiation in the form of matter and energy
Define: Ionic Bond
Chemical bond that occurs when an atom transfers an electron to another atom
Define: Ion
Atom that has become electrically charged as a result of gaining or losing an electron
Define: Covalent Bond
Chemical bond that forms when 2 atoms share electrons
Define: Molecule
2 or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
Define: Chemical Reaction
Breaking of old and formation of new chemical bonds that result in new substances
Define: Reactant
Starting material for a chemical reaction
Define: Product
Material created as a result of a chemical reaction
Define: Polar Molecule
Molecule in which opposite ends have opposite electric charges
Define: Hydrogen Bond
Bond created by the weak attraction of a slightly positive hydrogen atom to a slightly negative portion of another molecule
Define: Cohesion
Tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick to one another
Define: Adhesion
Attraction between unlike molecules
Define: Thermal Energy
Total amount of energy associated with the random movement of atoms and molecules in a sample of matter
Define: Temperature
Measure of the average energy of random motion of particles in a substance
Define: Solution
Uniform mixture of 2 or more substances
Define: Solvent
Substance in a solution that dissolves the other substance and is present in the greater amount
Define: Solute
Substance in a solution that is dissolved and is present in a lesser amount
Define: Aqueous Solution
Solution in which water is the solvent
Define: Acid
Compound that donates H⁺ ions to an aqueous solution and measures less than 7 on the pH scale
Define: Base
Compound that removes H⁺ ions from an aqueous solution and that measures more than 7 on the pH scale
Define: pH Scale
A range of numbers used to describe how acidic or basic a solution is; ranges from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic)
Define: Buffer
Substance that maintains a fairly constant pH in a solution by accepting H⁺ ions when their levels rise and donating H⁺ ions when their levels fall
What is a chemical formula?
Tells you the number and types of atoms in a molecule
What is a structural formula?
Indicates how atoms in a molecule are linked by bonds