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62 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
cells are usually loosely packed, cube shaped, or elongated cells that contain a large central vacuole and have thin, flexible cell walls -- they are involved in many metabolic functions including photosynthesis, storage of water and nutrients, and healing
cells are thicker
cell walls are also irregular in shape
the thicker cell walls provide more support for the plant -- they are grouped into strands and they are specialized for supporting parts of the plant that are still lengthening
thick, rigid cell walls
they support and strengthen the plant in areas where growth is no longer occuring
dermal tissue system
forms the outside covering of plants
the dermal tissue of a plant
ground tissue system
is surrounded by termal tissue -- consists of the enchymas -- it functions in storage, metabolism and support
vascular tissue system
surrounded by ground tissue -- functions in transport and support -- consists of xylem, tissue, and flowem tissue
in an angiosperm it is a long thick walled sclerenchyma with tapering ends
thin areas of the cell wall -- water moves through it
vessel element
a sclerenchyma cell that has either large holes in the top and bottom walls or no end walls at all
long tubes that are formed by stacked vessel elements
sive tube member
the conducting perenchyma cell of angiosperm flowem
sive tubes
the product of stacked sive tube members
sive plate
the end walls that compounds move from cell to cell through
companion cell
assists in transport
meri stems
where plant growths originate -- and plant cells continue to divide
apical meri stems
located at the tips and stems of roots
lateral meri stems
these allow stems and roots to increase in diameter (gymnosperms and most dicots)
vascular cambium
located between the xylem and phlome
cork cambium
located outside the phlome -- produces cork
dead cells that provided protection and prevent water loss
primary growth
growth in length
secondary growth
growth in diameter
tap root
the largest root
fibrous root system
numerous small roots develop and branch out
adventitious root
specialized roots that grow from stems and leaves
root cap
a protective cap that covers the apical meri stem
root hair
extentions of epidermal cells that increase the surface area of the root and thus increase the roots ability to absorb water and mineral nutrients
located just inside the epidermis -- where roots mature
the inner most cylinder of the cortex
peri cycle
the outer most layers of the central vascular tissues
minerals, such as nitrogen and potassium, that plants use in large amounts
minerals, such as magnesium, that are used in smaller amounts
the segments of a stem
at each end of the internode
the beginning of a flower
bud scales
the leaves that enclose the bud
located in the center of the stem
secondary xylem
darker wood in the center of the tree
the functional, often lighter colored wood near the outside of the trunk
the protective outside covering of woody plants
consists of cork, cambium, and phloem
new xylem tissue that is formed in the spring
the xylem that is produced in the summer
annual ring
a yearly growth ring in a woody plant
where the carbohydrates are stored
where the carbs from the source move to
the movement of carbs through the plant
pressure-flow hypothesis
the theorem that explains movement in the phloem -- states that carbs are actively transported into sive tubes
when water evaporates from the plant
cohesion tension theory
when water is pulled up the xylem by the strong attraction of water molecules to each other --- movement also depends on the rigid xylem walls and the attraction of the water to the walls, which is called adhesion
flat portion of the leaf -- site of most photosynthesis
a stock-like structure that attaches the blade to the stem
compound leaves
the blade is divided into leaflets
simple leaf
it has a single blade
mini leaves
a ground tissue that is composed of chloroplants and perenchyma cells
photosynthesis takes place here
palisade mesophyll
a layer that is right below the upper epidermis -- is the site of most photosynthesis
spongy mesophyll
beneath the palisade layer, it consists of irregularly shaped cells surrounded by long air spaces, which allow carbon dixodie and water to diffuse into and out of the leave
tube-like structures that run throughout the leaf
the arrangement of veins in a leaf
guard cells
modified cells bound on the leaf epidermis that regulate gas and water exchange