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8 Cards in this Set

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20.1 Introduction

by 1850 the population had grown just over 23 million. 3.6 million were African Americans. Harriet powers, a slave, grew up hearing bible stories. Many African Americans escaped for freedom. Whether Africans Americans lived in slavery or freedom, racism shaped their lives.

Racism- prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one's own race is superior.

20.2 north and south, slave and free

Slaves legal status, Rural and urban slaves, and free blacks in the south. Africans Americans in the north lived freer lives. but blacks experienced Discrimination, or unequal treatment. they were denied the right to vote. had trouble finding jobs. in addition to unequal treatment, policies of Segregation separated blacks from whites in nearly all public places.

Discrimination- unequal treatment based on a persons race, gender, religion, place of birth, or other arbitrary characteristic.

Segregation- the social separation people, especially by race

20.3 the economics of slavery

the wealthier planters could afford to buy slaves. the great majority of white southerners did not own slaves. the cotton gin made a hugely profitable cash crop in the south. in 1790 the south produced jest 3000 bales of cotton. by the 1850's production had soared to more than 4 million bales a year. cotton brought new wealth to the south. robert fogel, a historian who has studied the economics of slavery.

20.4 working conditions of slavery

slaves worked on farms of various sizes. on small farms owners and slaves worked side by side in the fields. overseers were paid to "care for nothing but to make a large crop".

20.5 living conditions of slaves

most masters viewed their slaves as they did their land-things to be "worn out, not improved". they provided only what was needed to keep their slaves healthy enough to work. slaves lives crowded together in rough cabins.

20.6 controlling slaves

slavery was a system of forced labor. to make this system work, slaveholders has to keep their slaves firmly under control. some slaveholders used harsh punishments-beatings,whipping, branding, and other forms of torture- to maintain control. but punishments often backfired of slaveholders. a slave who had had been badly whipped might not be able to work for some time. harsh punishments were also were likely to make slaves feel more resentful and rebellious. slaveholders preferred to control their their control their workforce by making slaves feel totally dependent on their masters. owners encouraged such dependence by treating their slaves like grown up children.