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40 Cards in this Set

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Zeitgeist

the general intellectual climate of a culture

Spandrels

Nonadaptive characteristics that evolve because they are related to evolutionary changes that are adaptive

Evolve

to gradually undergo change

Hominins

the family of primates tha includes homo sapiens, homo erectus, and australopihecus

Analgous

Having a similar structure because of convergent evolution (bird's and bee's wing)

Monogomy

A pattern of mate bonding in which one male and one female form and enduring bond

Phenylketonuria (PKU)

A neurological disorder whose symptoms are vomiting, seizures, hyperactivity, hyperiritabilitty, retardation, brain damage, and high levels of phenylpyruvic acid in the urine

Chordates

Animals with dorsal nerve chords

Phenylpyruvic acid

A substance that is found in abnormally high concentrations in the urine of those suffering from phenylketonuria

Epigenetics

A field of research that focuses on factors that influence the expression of genes

Phylogeny

the evolutionary development of a species

Polygyny

a pattern of mate bonding in which one male bonds with more than one female; the most prevalent pattern of mate bonding in mammals

Sensory phase

the first of the two phases of birdsong development, during which young birds do not sing but form memories of the adult songs they hear

Ethology

the study of the behavior of animals in their natural environments

Nature-Nurture issue

the debate about the relative contributions of nature (genes) and nurture (experience) to the behavioral capacities of individuals

Convergent evolution

the evolution in unrelated species of similar solutions to the same environmental demands

Amphibians

species that spend their larval phase in water and their adult phase on land

Species

a group of organisms that is reproductively isolated from other organisms; the members of on species cannot produce fertile offspring by mating with members of another species

Asomatognosia

A deficiency in the awareness of parts of one's own body hat is typically produces by damage to the parietal lobe

Polyandry

A pattern of mate bonding in which one female bonds with more than one male (seahorses)

Natural Selection

the idea that heritable traits that are associated with high rates of survival and reproduction are preferentially passed on to future generations

Cognitive map theory

the theory that the main function of the hippocampus is to store memories of spatial location

Convolutions

folds on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres

Conspecifics

members of the same species

Fitness

According to Darwin, the ability of an organism to survive and contribute its genes to the next generation

Ontogyny

the development of individuals over their life span

Monozygotic twins

Idenditcal twins; twins that develop from the same zygote and are thus genetically identical

Heritability estimate

A numerical estimate of the proportion of variability that occurred in a particular trait in a particular study that resulted from the genetic variation among the subjects in that study

Mammals

Species whose young are fed from mammary glands

Instinctive behaviors

Behaviors that occur in all like members of a species, even when there seems to have been no opportunity for them to have been learned

Sensitive period

the period during the development of a particular trait, usually in early life, when a particular experience is likely to change the course of that development

Brain Stem

the part of the brain on which the cerebral hemispheres res; in general, it regulates reflex activities that are critical for survival (e.g. heart rate and respiration).

Cartesian dualism

the philosophical position of Rene Descartes who argued that the universe is comeposed of two elements: physical matter and the human mind

Primates

One of 14 different orders of mammals; there are five families of primates: prosimians, New-World Monkeys, Old-world Monkeys, apes, and hominids

Vertebrates

Chordates that possess spinal bones

Dizygotic twins

Fraternal twins; twins that develop from two zygotes and thus tend to be as genetically similar as any pair of siblings

Exaptation

A characteristic that evolved because it performed one function but was later co-opted to perform another

Homologous

Having a similar structure because of a common evolutionary origin (bat wing and human arm)

Cerebrum

the portion of the brain that sits on the brain stem; in general, it plays a role in complex adaptive processes (e.g., learning, perception, and motivation)

Sensorimotor phase

the second of the two phases of bird song development during which juvenile birds progress from subsongs to adult songs