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58 Cards in this Set

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NEURON

CELL SPECIALIZED FOR NERVOUS SYSTEM FUNCTION

NERVES

COLLECTIONS OF THEIR PROCESSES

WHAT ARE THE TWO LARGE SUBDIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM?

PERIPHERAL AND CENTRAL

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

INCLUDES ALL PARTS OF THE SYSTEM THAT ARE OUTSIDE OF THE BONY CASINGS OF THE SKULL & SPINAL COLUMN

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

INCLUDES ALL PARTS OF THE SYSTEM THAT ARE WITHIN THE SKULL AND SPINAL COLUMN. SPINAL COLUMN ENCASES AND PROTECTS THE SPINAL CORD. SKULL ENCASES AND PROTECTS THE BRAIN

FORAMEN MAGNUM

WHERE SPINAL CORD ARE BRAIN ARE CONTINUOUS [HOLE AT THE BASE OF THE BRAIN]

ANATOMICAL POSITION

THE REFERENCE POSITION

CEPHALIC

NOSE END [AKA ROSTRAL] TOWARDS THE HEAD

CAUDAL

BUTTOCKS END [TAIL END IN LOWER ANIMALS]

DORSAL

BACK [POSTERIOR]

VENTRAL

FRONT [ANTERIOR]

IN THE MOST CEPHALIC REGION IN THE BRAIN ______ MEANS SUPERIOR AND ______ MEANS INFERIOR

DORSAL, VENTRAL

MEDIAL

TOWARD THE MIDLINE

LATERAL

AWAY FROM THE MIDLINE

SAGITTAL SECTION

ANTERIOR-POSTERIOR CUT [SHOWS EITHER THE RIGHT OR LEFT SIDE OF THE BRAIN OR SPINAL CORD, USUALLY SLICED IN THE MIDLINE]

PARASAGITTAL SECTION

SLICED LATERAL TO THE MIDLINE

CORONAL SECTION

LEFT-RIGHT CUT [SHOWS THE DORSAL OR VENTRAL SIDE; MADE IN THE CEREBRAL HEMISPERES OR CEREBELLUM-A TOP VIEW OF THE HEMISPHERES]

SPINAL CORD

LONG COLUMN OF AFFERENT AND EFFERENT NERVE ENDINGS

AFFERENT NERVE FIBERS

ASCENDING NERVE FIBERS THAT CARRY INFO TO THE BRAIN

EFFERENT NERVE FIBERS

NERVE FIBERS DESCENDING [TO CARR COMMANDS FROM THE BRAIN]

CAUDA EQUINA

THE BUNDLE OF SPINAL NERVES THAT DESCENDS IN THE SPINAL COLUMN BEFORE EXITING

CERVICAL VERTEBRAE

FIRST 7 VERTEBRAE OF THE SPINAL COLUMN

THROACIC VERTEBRAE

NEXT 12 VERTEBRAE UNDER CERVICAL[7]

LUMBAR VERTERBRAE

NEXT 5 VERTERBRAE UNDER THROACIC[12]

SACRAL VERTERBRAE

NEXT 5 VERTEBRAE UNDER LUMBAR [5]

COCCYGEAL VERTEBRAE

LAST 1-3 VERTEBRAE

SPINAL NERVES

CARRY MOTOR AND SENSORY INFORMATION TO/FROM THE BODY. CORRESPOND TO VERTEBRAL LEVEL AT WHICH THEY EXIT [ON THE LEFT AND RIGHT]

LOSS OF FUNCTION IN THE SPINAL CORD

IF THE SPINAL CORD IS SEVERED FUNCTION TO ALL MUSCLES BELOW THE LEVEL OF THE DAMAGE IS LOST. [EX. IF AN INDIVIDUAL HAS A SPINAL CORD INJURY AT THE LEVEL OF C2 MOTOR INNERVATION TO ALL MUSCLES OF RESPIRATION WILL BE LOST]

DERMATOME

THE AREA OF SKIN INNERVATED BY NERVES RELATED TO A PARTICULAR SEGMENT OF THE SPINAL CORD

BRACHIAL PLEXUS & LUMBOSACRAL PLEXUS

WHERE THE SPINAL CORD ENLARGES IN THESE AREA. FORMED BY LARGE NUMBERS OF NERVE CELL BODIES & PROCESSES THAT COLLECT IN THOSE AREAS. EX. AFFERENT AND EFFERENT NERVES IN THE _____ ________ INNERVATE THE UPPER EXTREMETIES [ARMS]

GLIA

OTHER CELLS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM THAT SUPPORT NEURON

GRAY MATTER

AREAS OF THE CNS COMPOSED PRIMARILY OF CELL BODIES, AS COLLECTIONS OF NEURON CELL BODIES

WHITE MATTER

AREAS COMPOSED PRIMARILY OF NEURON PROCESSES AS A RESULT OF SOME SPECIALIZED GLIA WRAPPING THEMSELVES AROUND THE PROCESSES OF MANY NEURONS [FORMING INSULATING FATTY LAYERS]

NEURAXIS

BRAINSTEM & SPINAL CORD

LARGE DIVISIONS OF THE BRAIN

BRAINSTEM, DIENCEPHALON, CEREBELLUM, CEREBRUM, & NEURAXIS

BRAINSTEM

INCLUDES MEDULLA OBLONGATA, PONS, MIDBRAIN

DIENCEPHALON

THALAMUS, EPITHALAMUS, HYPOTHALAMUS

3 PARTS OF CEREBELLUM & CEREBRUM

CORTEX, DEEP CEREBELLAR NUCLEI, BASAL GANGLIA

CORTEX

MOST SUPERFICIAL PART OF EACH STRUCTURE; PRIMARILY GRAY MATTER/NEURON CELL BODIES

DEEP CEREBELLAR NUCLEI

GROUPS OF CELL BODIES DEEP WITHIN THE CEREBELLUM

BASAL GANGLIA

GROUPS OF CELL BODIES DEEP WITHIN THE CEREBRUM

LOBES OF THE CEREBRAL CORTEX

FRONTAL, PARIETAL, AND OCCIPITAL

DEEP SULCI

FISSURES; WRINKLED HILLOCKS & GROVES ON THE CORTEX

CENTRAL SULCUS AKA FISSURE OF ROLANDO

DIVIDES THE PRECENTRAL GYRUS OF THE FRONTAL LOBE FROM THE POSTCENTRAL GYRUS OF THE PARIETAL LOBE

PARIETOOCCIPITAL SULCUS

SEPARATES THE PARIETAL AND OCCIPITAL LOBES

INSULA

HIDES WITHIN THE LATERAL SULCUS, AKA SYLVIAN FISSURE, AND IS A PART OF THE CORTEX

LONGITUDINAL FISSURE

DIVIDES THE TWO HEMISPHERES

CORPUS CALLOSUM

MASSIVE WHITE STRUCTURE INCLUDED IN THE FIBER BUNDLES CONNECTING THE TWO HEMISPHERES

BRADMANN'S NUMBERS

HOW SOME AREAS OF THE BRAIN ARE STILL IDENTIFIED, BASED ON WHAT SOME NEUROANATOMISTS REFERRED TO PATCHES OF THE CORTEX W/A UNIFORMLY SIMILAR CELL PATTERNS

HIPPOCAMPUS

PORTION OF THE CEREBRAL CORTEX, HIDDEN WITHIN THE SYLVIAN FISSURE, AND IS NAMED FOR ITS SEAHORSE SHAPE IN CROSS-SECTION

SUBSTANTIA NIGRA

IN THE MIDBRAIN AND IS NAMED FOR ITS BLACK APPEARANCE [LESIONS HAVE BEEN IMPLICATED IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE]

CAUDATE NUCLEUS & VENTRICLES

LARGE INTERNAL SPACES

SUPERIOR & INFERIOR COLLICULI

LOCATED AT THE ROSTRAL END OF THE BRAINSTEM

STRIATUM

BASAL GANGLIA, CAUDATE NUCLEUS, GLOBUS PALLIDUS, AND PUTAMEN [AS WELL AS THE SUBSTANTIA NIGRA & NIGRA & THE SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS]

THE BRAINSTEM

PHYLOGENETICALLY THE OLDEST PART OF THE BRAIN, AND IS THE EXTENSION OF THE SPINAL CORD INSIDE THE SKULL. AREA OF TRANSITION BETWEEN THE CEREBRUM AND THE SPINAL CORD WHERE MANY IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS ARE CONTROLLED.

CRANIAL NERVE

EFFERENT AND AFFERENT FIBERS RELATED TO PARTS OF THE BRAINSTEM. 12 PAIRS WITH 2 ROLES: BRING INFO FROM THE SPECIAL SENSE AND SOMATIC SENSES OF THE FACE AND HEAD INTO THE BRAIN, AND THEY SEND COMMANDS OUT TO THE MUSCLES AND GLANDS OF THE HEAD AND NECK TO CONTROL BEHAVIOR

MENINGES

TOUGH MEMBRANES THAT PROTECT THE SOFT, GELATINOUS NERVOUS SYSTEM FROM CONTUSION AND INFECTION

CEREBROSPINAL FLUID

CUSHIONS THE NERVOUS SYSTEM [IMPORTANT PART OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM OF THE CNS]