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41 Cards in this Set

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the process through which cellular ribosomes manufacture proteins, in which messenger RNA (mRNA) is sequentially decoded by transfer RNA (tRNA).
the process by which DNA is transferred from one bacterium to another by a virus.[1] It also refers to the process whereby foreign DNA is introduced into another cell via a viral vector.
Does not require physical contact.
the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Enzyme Inhibitor
a molecule which binds to enzymes and decreases their activity.
a segment of DNA to which a transcription factor protein binds.
a functioning unit of genomic DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single regulatory signal or promoter.
a DNA-binding protein that regulates the expression of one or more genes by binding to the operator and blocking the attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter, thus preventing transcription of the genes. This blocking of expression is called repression.
regulatory gene
a gene involved in controlling the expression of one or more other genes. A regulator gene may encode a protein, or it may work at the level of RNA.
a substance that inhibits the expression of genes. In prokaryotes, corepressors are small molecules whereas in eukaryotes, corepressors are proteins. A corepressor does not directly bind to DNA, but instead indirectly regulates gene expression by binding to repressors.
a molecule that starts gene expression. An inducer can bind to repressors or activators.
cyclic AMP (cAMP)
a second messenger important in many biological processes. cAMP is derived from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and used for intracellular signal transduction in many different organisms, conveying the cAMP-dependent pathway.
is a protein that increases gene transcription of a gene or set of genes.
Most are DNA-binding proteins.
differential gene expression
the expression of different sets of gees by cells with the same genome.
histone acetylation
are enzymes that acetylate conserved lysine amino acids on histone proteins by transferring an acetyl group from acetyl CoA
DNA methylation
a biochemical process that is important for normal development in higher organisms. It involves the addition of a methyl group to the pyrimidine ring or the purine ring. This modification can be inherited through cell division.
epigenetic inheritance
is the study of heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence
control elements
segment of non-coding DNA that helps regulate transcription of a gene by serving as a binding site for a transcription factor.
a short region of DNA that can be bound with proteins (namely, the trans-acting factors, much like a set of transcription factors) to enhance transcription levels of genes (hence the name) in a gene cluster. While enhancers are usually cis-acting, an enhancer does not need to be particularly close to the genes it acts on, and sometimes need not be located on the same chromosome.
a small DNA molecule that is physically separate from, and can replicate independently of, chromosomal DNA within a cell. Mostly found as small circular, double-stranded DNA molecules in bacteria, plasmids are sometimes present in archaea and eukaryotic organisms.
a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the living cells of an organism. Viruses can infect all types of organisms, from animals and plants to bacteria and archaea.[1]
nucleic acid
are large biological molecules essential for all known forms of life. They include DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid). Together with proteins, nucleic acids are the most important biological macromolecules; each is found in abundance in all living things, where they function in encoding, transmitting and expressing genetic information.
the protein shell of a virus. It consists of several oligomeric structural subunits made of protein called protomers.
viral envelopes
envelope containing a virus's capsid.
bacteriophages / phages
a virus that infects and replicates within bacteria.
host range
an organism that harbors a parasite, or a mutual or commensal symbiont, typically providing nourishment and shelter.
lytic cycle
one of the two cycles of viral reproduction, the other being the lysogenic cycle. The lytic cycle is typically considered the main method of viral replication, since it results in the destruction of the infected cell.
virulent phage
a phage that only replicates by lytic cycle.
restriction enzymes
an enzyme that cuts DNA at specific recognition nucleotide sequences known as restriction sites.
temperate phages
the ability of some bacteriophages (notable coliphage λ) to display a lysogenic life cycle
a phage (viral) genome inserted and integrated into the circular bacterial DNA chromosome. A prophage, also known as a temperate phage, is any virus in the lysogenic cycle; it is integrated into the host chromosome or exists as an extrachromosomal plasmid.
DNA Polymerase
a cellular or viral polymerase enzyme that synthesizes DNA molecules from their nucleotide building blocks. DNA polymerases are essential for DNA replication, and usually function in pairs while copying one double-stranded DNA molecule into two double-stranded DNAs in a process termed semiconservative DNA replication.
an RNA virus that replicates in a host cell using its reverse transcriptase enzyme to produce DNA from its RNA genome.
reverse transcription
creates single-stranded DNA from an RNA template.
a virus genome that is integrated into the DNA of a host cell.
rapid reproduction
.... seriously?
a change in the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal genetic element. Mutations result from unrepaired damage to DNA or to RNA genomes (typically caused by radiation or chemical mutagens), from errors in the process of replication, or from the insertion or deletion of segments of DNA by mobile genetic elements.
genetic recombination
the production of new combinations of alleles, encoding a novel set of genetic information, e.g., by the pairing of homologous chromosomes in meiosis, or by the breaking and rejoining of DNA strands, which forms new molecules of DNA.
Bacterial transformation may be referred to as a stable genetic change brought about by the uptake of naked DNA (DNA without associated cells or proteins) and competence refers to the state of being able to take up exogenous DNA from the environment. There are two forms of competence: natural and artificial.
the direct transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined.
proteins secreted by certain bacteria and other organisms
lipopolysaccharide components of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria.