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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Mass wasting is __________.

The downslope movement of material under the influence of gravity.

A movement of fairly coherent material along a well-defined surface is called a ______.


What is the most rapid type of mass wasting?

Rock avalanche

Heavy rainfalls or melting glaciers that erode volcanic deposits produce which type of mass wasting?


What causes this type of mass wasting?

What causes this type of mass wasting?

Alternating freezing and thawing.

What type of mass wasting occurs in association with permafrost.


What is the name applied to a relatively rapid downslope movement of water-rich soil and regolith in semiarid regions?

Debris flow

What is the estimated amount of total dollar losses from landslides in the US?

Nearly $4 billion

Where in North America is one of the largest known landslides that apparently raced downslope on a cushion of compressed air?

Blackhawk landslide, San Bernardino Mountains,, California

How does water change the strength and cohesion of clay-rich regolith or soil?

Water lowers the strength and cohesion of both clay and soil.

What is the angle of repose?

A stable slope, the steepest angle of which is determined by the material in the pile.

What type of Mass Wasting would most likely be triggered by an earthquake?

Rock avalanche

How does the gravitational force pulling a particle downward along the land surface vary with the inclination of the slope?

It will decrease as the slope angle is lessened.

Why was the Alaskan pipeline built above ground and insulated?

To protect the pipeline against damage because of thawing ground.

As an erosional process, how is mass wasting unique from wind, water, and ice?

Mass wasting does not require a transporting medium.

During wet weather or times when snow is melting, sometimes the downhill toe of a slump becomes an _____.


What was a major factor leading to the Gros Ventre, WY, slide?

Soils and shallow bedrock were very wet and locally saturated. Heavy rains and melting snow triggered the major rockslide, which made the sandston slide down the slope on top of wet clay.

What type of mass wasting operates primarily in areas of permafrost?


Is Geologic age a factor affecting mass wasting?


What is the controlling force in mass wasting?


What caused the 1985 mudflows on the Nevado del Ruiz volcano?

Hot ash fell onto snow near the summit, this melted the snow and produced torrents of hot, viscous mud, ash, and debris.

Which type of mass wasting process involves movement of rock on a zone of compressed air?

Rock avalanche

What are lahars?


What type of mass wasting is common wherever water cannot escape from the saturated surface layer by infiltrating to deeper levels?

Solifluction - when soil is saturated with water, the soggy mass may flow downslope at a rate of a few millimeters or a few centimeters per day or per year.

Where do rock avalanches occur?

Where there is exposed rock that is able to fall downslope.

Where does soil creep operate?

Places that have alternating expansion and contraction of surface material caused by freezing and thawing or wetting and drying.

What types of climates do mudflows operate?

Many, but most frequently in semiarid mountainous regions.

Does mass wasting depend on wind, water, and ice?


What is slumping?

A block or blocks of unconsolidated regolith slide downhill along a curved slip surface

Which mass wasting process has the slowest rate of movement?


What term denotes the exposed, crescent-shaped rupture surface at the head of a slump?


What type of mass wasting is best described as a a process in which a block or blocks of unconsolidated regolith slide downhill along a curved slip surface?


What type of mass wasting is a process in which blocks of hard bedrock break loose rapidly slide downhill along fracture surfaces?


What type of mass wasting is a process in which the soil and regolith move downhill very slowly?


What type of mass wasting is a process in which a mass of soil or regolith becomes saturated with water and suddenly flows downhill to the base of the slope?


What mass movement is most likely to occur in a geologic setting where the rock strata are inclined?


How do freezing, thawing, wetting, and drying contribute to soil creep?

The soil expands and contracts, lifting particles and dropping them a slight distance downslope.

What can happen to the downhill toe of a slump during wet weather or times when snow is melting?

The toe can become an earthflow.

What is the primary way in which talus slopes are built?


What are possible indicators that creep is taking place?

Tilted fences or power line poles

Curved tree trunks

Cracks in roads or sidewalks

Is soil thickness and indicator of creep?


Earthflows most often form on hillsides in ______ areas during times of _______ or ________.


Heavy precipitation


Debris flow is also known as a _______.


What happened in Vaiont Canyon, Italy, 1963?

A huge mass of soil and rock suddenly slid into a water-filled reservoir. (the presence of a dam)