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14 Cards in this Set

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Mutagens alter DNA how? Disrupting paring....

Disrupting paring through modification of nucleotide structures

Mutagens alter DNA: how do they modify the nucleotide structure?

Notrous acid de-aminates bases so that modified bases do not pair with appropriate nucleotide

Mutagens alter DNA: how? Ionizing radiation...

Ionizing radiation has high energy and can penetrate DNA to create free radicals.

Mutagens alter DNA: what types of waveforms from ionizing radiation cause mutagens?

X rays and Gamma rays

Mutagens alter DNA: X rays and Gamma rays do what specifically to DNA?

They cause base deletions or breaks in 1 or both DNA strands

Mutagens alter DNA: Nonionizing radiation...

Nonionizing radiation has less energy and can only penetrate the surface

Mutagens alter DNA: What types on nonionizing radiation cause mutagens?

UV rays

Mutages alter DNA: nonionizing radation caused by UV rays does what?

cause formation of thymine dimer causing gaps or incorporation of incorrect bases

DNA Repair: What does it mean?

All living organisms must have the ability to repair changes that occur in DNA in order to minimize mutation

DNA Repair requires (2)

DNA damage to be detected. Repair of DNA damage

Repair enzyme does what? (2)

recognizes incorrect structure in DNA and corrects it.

Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER). How common?

Most common DNA repair system.

NER : How does it work?

Region encompassing several nucleotides in the damaged strand is removed from the DNA

NER : Does it replace what it takes out?

Yes, intact undamaged strand is used as a template for re-synthesis of a normal complementary strand