Differences In Genetic Research

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The genetic information in an organism’s DNA ultimately determines its traits; however, if this genetic information is somehow altered (the arrangement of nucleotides changed) new traits can appear or a deformity might occur. When a cell fails to replicate properly and DNA that is produced is not identical to that of the original (as a result of changes made for various reasons), a mutation has occurred. Failures in replication can be caused by a large number of reasons, but some of the more common examples include incorrect pairing of nitrogen bases and exposure to radiation and certain chemicals. “A mutagen is any agent that changes the DNA of an organism.” An example of a mutagen is a virus because viruses injects their genetic information …show more content…
Downs syndrome is caused by autosomal chromosomes (a chromosome that is not a reproductive chromosome) which fail to properly pull apart during cell division, leading to three copies of chromosome 21 being in the offspring (this offspring will have down syndrome). Most organisms have cells that fall under two categories either body cells or gametes. Mutations in both of these have different effects. For example, mutations that occur in body cells (called somatic mutations) are not inherited by the offspring, but they can have substantial affects on the organism that they occur in. A selection of cancers occur because of mutations in the genes that control the rate at which the cells reproduce. Different forms of cancer are caused by different mutagens. For example, skin cancer can be caused by ultraviolet radiation while lung cancer can be caused by tobacco. Viruses are mutagens because they inject their genetic material into a host 's DNA cell to reproduce that virus,; viruses can sometimes alter DNA in a way that it will end up causing …show more content…
Genetic mutations are believed to be a contributing factor to variation, diversity, and even evolution. This information confirmed a lingering suspicion that I had about genetic diseases. I previously knew that people were infertile due to conditions during embryotic development and this confirmed that suspicion by verifying that reproductive chromosomes are not distributed evenly and this causes infertility in people. I would like to more about the ways that DNA and chromosomes can mutate because it is interesting to see the way that organisms evolve over time for better or worse. This specifically is what interests me (the methods and affects of mutation on a long term basis). This information is important to know because understanding how we got where we are (theory of evolution) and how animals change and why some humans experience issues will things like infertility can help us deepen our knowledge about the general image of human anatomy (we can understand ourselves better, and by doing so we can literally improve our

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