Capstone: The Greatest Effects Of The Human Body

Superior Essays
Isaak Adoyi
Professor Karp
Immunology
Capstone
Research Paper

The human body has approximately one trillion cells and precisely 46 chromosomes in each cell. Still, the human body can be altered by genetic mutation. Genetic mutations have had a great impact on humanity. They have brought pain and harm to numerous people. Cancer is one of the most lethal diseases. Cancer finds its origin when a portion of DNA inside a chromosome is damaged, causing a cell to mutate. Then, the mutated cell reproduces multiple times and creates what is called a tumor. (Essay on Cancer:Virulent Disease). Afterwards, cancer cells break from the tumor, enter the bloodstream, and disperse throughout the body. In a situation where a cell breaks off, the tumor is
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When discussing health problems of smoking, the author writes, “Smoking harms nearly every organ in the body” (Harms of Smoking and Health Benefits of Quitting). Upon research, scientists have concluded that using tobacco products damages cells. The damaged cells become mutated and form cancer cells. The author goes on to explain, “Among the 250 known harmful chemicals in tobacco smoke, at least 69 can cause cancer” (Harms of Smoking and Health Benefits of Quitting). These harmful chemicals develop many different types of cancer. Some of these toxins include arsenic, carbon monoxide, and lead. When these are directly consumed, these chemicals are very damaging, they can cause diseases like cancer. In another online article, the text states, “Certain chemicals in tobacco smoke damage an important gene called p53. The p53 gene is found in the nucleus of every cell in the human body and its main role is to prevent cancer cells evolving” (Does Smoking Cause Cancer?). The poisonous chemicals in cigarettes weaken a gene that protects the body from receiving cancer. Without the p53 gene, people become more susceptible to this harmful disease. To prevent cancer, society must learn to not use tobacco …show more content…
Coley a medical doctor in New York, made some startling observations in the late 1800, he noted that by contracting an infection after surgery seemed to help some cancer patients. Edward McCarthy wrote, it wasn’t until 1891 that William B. Coley was ready to intentionally infect a patient with inoperable cancer by injecting streptococci organisms. He thought that the infection he produced would have the side effect of shrinking the malignant tumor, he was successful, and this was one of the first examples of immunotherapy (Edward F McCarthy 2006). Over the next forty years, Coley had injected more than 1000 cancer patients with bacteria or bacterial products, this became known as Coley’s Toxins. Though he and other doctors had reported excellent results, Coley 's Toxins came under a great deal of criticism as many doctors did not believe them. With this, along with the development of radiation and chemotherapy, caused Coley 's Toxins to gradually disappear completely from use. William Coley 's intuitions were correct: Stimulating the immune system may be effective in treating cancer, but he was a man before his time, and had met with severe criticism. Despite this, however, Coley stuck with his ideas, and today we are recognizing their potential

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