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37 Cards in this Set

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Define Cognitive psychology

The study of how people perceive, remember, think, speak, and solve problems.

Define Developmental psychology

The study of how thought and behavior change and remained stable across the lifespan.

Define Behavioral neuroscience

The study of the links among brain mind and behavior.

Define Personality psychology

The study of what makes people unique and the consistencies in people's behavior across time and situations

Define Social psychology

The study of how living among others influences thought, feeling, and behavior

Define Clinical psychology

The diagnosis and treatment of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders and the promotion of psychological help.

Define Counseling psychology

Related field of clinical psychology, tend to work with less severe psychological disorders than clinical psychologists

Define Health psychology

The study of the role psychological factors play in regard to health and illness

Define Educational psychology

The study of how students learn, the effectiveness of particular teaching techniques, the social psychology of schools, and the psychology of teaching. School psychology is a related field which is basically a counselor

Define Industrial psychology

involves matching employees to their jobs and uses psychological principles and methods to select employees and evaluate job performance. sometimes referred to as personnel psychology

Define Organizational psychology

Aims to make workers more productive and satisfied by considering how work environments and management styles influence worker motivation, satisfaction, and productivity.

Define Industrial/organizational psychology

The application of psychological concepts and questions to work settings.

Define Sports psychology

The study of psychological factors in sports and exercise

Define Forensic psychology

The field that blends psychology, law, and criminal justice.

Define Psychology

The scientific study of thought and behavior

Define Asylums

Facilities for treating the mentally ill in Europe during the Middle Ages and into the 19th century

Define moral treatment

The 19th century approach to treating the mentally ill with dignity in a caring environment

The first major proponent of humane therapies?

Frenchman Philippe Pinel in 1783

Who established the view that knowledge and thoughts come from experience?

John Locke

Define empiricism

the view that knowledge and thoughts come from experience

psychophysics

The study of how people psychologically perceive physical stimuli, such as light, sound waves, and touch

Who is considered the founder of American psychology?

William James

Define structuralism

A 19th century school of psychology created by Wilhelm Wundt that argued that breaking down experience into its elemental parts offered the best way to understand thought and behavior

Define introspection

The main method of investigation for structuralists; it involves looking into one's own mind for information about the nature of conscious experience.

Define functionalism

A 19th century school of psychology that argued it was better to look at why the mind works the way it does than to describe its parts. Most famous functionalist is William James.

Define behaviorism

A school of psychology created by John Watson that proposed that psychology could be a true science only if it examines observable behavior, not ideas, thoughts, feelings, or motives

Define humanistic psychology and who created it?

A theory of psychology that focuses on personal growth and meaning as a way of reaching one's highest potential. Maslow and Carl Rogers created it.

Define Positive psychology

A scientific approach to studying, understanding, and promoting healthy and positive psychological functioning.

Define Gestalt psychology and who led it?

A theory of psychology that maintains that we perceive things as wholes rather than as a compilation of parts. Led by Max Wertheimer in Germany.

What is the nature-only view in the nature-nature debate?

That who we are comes from inborn tendencies and genetically based traits

What is the nature-nurture debate?

Arguments over what determines our personality and behavior, innate biology or life experience.

Can psychology be classified as nature or nurture in the nature-nurture debate?

NO

Define softwiring

In contrast to hardwiring, biological systems-genes, brain structures, and brain cells- are inherited but open to modification from the environment.

Define nature through nurture

The position that the environment constantly interacts with biology to shape who we are and what we do.

Define mind-body dualism and who created it?

States that the mind and the body are separate entities, where the mind controls the body and the body can occasionally control the mind too, but mainly when we abandon good judgment, such as in the throes of passion. Created by Rene Descartes.

Adaptation

Inherited solutions to ancestral problems that have been selected for because they contribute in some way to reproductive success.

Define evolutionary psychology

The branch of psychology that studies human behavior by asking what adaptive problems it may have solved for our early ancestors.