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39 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
In one of the first social psychological experiments ever conducted, researcher Norman Triplett examined the records of teams of cyclists. He found that cyclists who raced against each other _____ than those who raced alone (against the clock).
cycled more quickly
Based on early research by Norman Triplett with racing cyclists, we should expect that people who exercise on rowing machines at gyms, among other people, would be more likely to burn more_____ than people who exercise on the same machines in the privacy of their homes.
burn more calories
The first social psychological experiments and the publication of the first book to bear the title Social Psychology both occurred around______.
Although the first social psychological experiments took place around 1900, social psychology did not begin to come into its own as a field until ____.
the 1950s and 1960s.
Milgram’s famous studies of obedience to authority were motivated by which historical event?
The Holocaust
When social psychology began to come into its own as a field in the 1950s and 1960s, mainstream psychology was divided between________.
behaviorism and Freudian psychoanalysis.
Behaviorism seeks to explain human behavior in terms of ________.
learning principles such as rewards and punishments.
Social psychology is best defined as the study of
how our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are affected by other people.
As a rule, social psychologists are primarily interested in
normal adult human beings.
In social psychology, the "ABC triad" consists of
affects, behaviors and cognitions.
In psychology, an "affect" is most similar to
an emotion or mood.
When psychologists talk about "cognitions," they are typically referring to
thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes.
When trying to explain a person's behavior, the first place social psychologists tend to look is to
the situation the person is in.
Most social psychologists perform research by
conducting experiments.
Which of the following fields is best defined as "the study of human culture—the shared values, beliefs, and practices of a group of people"?
Which of the following fields is concerned with the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services?
Laela is interested in studying how groups of which we are members influence our thinking and behavior. Which other social science (besides social psychology) will Laela’s work MOST closely intersect?
Political science is BEST described as the study of
organizations and institutions, especially governments.
Although sociologists and social psychologists are both interested in group behavior, sociologists tend to focus on the group as a single unit, whereas social psychologists tend to focus on _____.
individual members within the group
Within psychology, which type of psychologists typically focus on "abnormal" behavior (e.g., mental disorders and behavioral disorders)?
only clinical psychologists
Which branch of psychology is primarily concerned with thought processes (e.g., how memory works and what people pay attention to)?
Cognitive psychology
The study of how people change across their lives from conception to death is the purview of
Developmental psychology.
According to the textbook, people typically study social psychology because it is fun and interesting, and can
help make the world a better place.
According to the textbook, "common sense" theories about social psychology are
often misleading or contradictory.
The first step in the scientific method is to
state a problem for study.
What is a hypothesis?
A testable prediction
Social psychologists routinely test research hypotheses using the .05 level of significance. This means that so-called "significant" findings are actually "flukes" about _____ of the time.
If you conduct a study and predict that X causes Y, then X is the
independent variable.
If you conduct a study and predict that A causes B, then B is the
dependent variable.
In the context of research, an operational definition of a variable is a precise description of
how the variable will be defined (i.e., how it will be manipulated or measured).
A(n) _____ is someone who works for a researcher by serving as an "actor" in the research (e.g., pretending to be another research participant, and being mean to other research participants in order to see how participants respond to meanness).
Researchers tend to use quasi-experimental research designs when they are able to manipulate an independent variable but NOT able to
use random assignment.
What is the main advantage of an experiment over a correlational study?
The researcher is better able to draw conclusions about cause and effect.
When a researcher conducts an experiment and is fairly certain that changes in the independent variable caused changes in the dependent variable, that experiment is said to be high in
internal validity.
When the effects of two variables cannot be separated,_____has been said to occur.
When experiments are conducted outside of the laboratory, in real-world settings, they are called
field experiments.
When findings from a study are likely to generalize to other people and other settings, the study is said to have
external validity.
The main weakness with correlational research (as opposed to experimental research) is that
researchers cannot draw conclusions about cause and effect.
Replication refers to
repeating an experiment to see if the same results can be obtained..