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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

The promoter is comprised of?


What binds to the promoter?

RNA polymerase

If DNA is double stranded, how many strands is RNA?


During Transcrption what is the template made of?


What is transcription?

Synthesis of complementary RNA stand from a DNA template.

Energy for replication is supplied by?


What is termination?

A stop codon

What is a degenerate code?

More than one codon for an amono acid

What binds to the operator?

Active repressor

What is the corepressor of the TRP Operon?


RNA polymerase binds to?

The promoter

Permease --what is it's function?

Brings lactose into the cell

Mutations---what is it?

Change in the base sequence in DNA which can change the end product.

What is a mutagen?

Agent that causes mutations. Ex: chemicals & radiation

What is spontaneous mutation?

Occurs in the absence of mutagens.

Sometimes DNA replication, DNA polymerase makes mistakes which tries and proofreads... But?

Sometimes DNA polymerase doesn't recognize the mistake. Makes a spontaneous mutation.

Induced Mutations?

Something present.. Like chemicals and/or radiation that cause mutations to occur.

Base substitutions?

One of the bases are substituted for another. Ex: "A" to a "T" or "G" to a "C."

What is frame shift Mutation?

1 or more bases have been added or removed. It causes a shift in the reading of that codon.

Is point mutation the same as base mutation?


EXCISION REPAIR----What is it also called? What is it

It is also called "dark repair." Can happen with or without light. Doesn't require it. Excision repair uses endonuclease that excises the damaged DNA (nucleic acids) in the middle.

Also, excision repair utilizes exonuclease to get rid of the thymine dimers that are present.

Why does dark repair remove the thymine dimers, as well as any damage to the DNA?

It removes it so that the damage is gone and can add the bases that it's suppose to have.

How does it know whether or not what bases to add?

The DNA is still there so it will make the complimentary bases from that DNA.

What is the enzyme that adds DNA nucleotides?

DNA polymerase

What enzyme is used to cut out "excise" damaged nucleic acids in the middle?


What enzyme is used to remove thymine dimers?


What enzyme forms a covalent bond that fuses the preexisting and new nucleotides together?


What happens if there is too much damage to the DNA ?

Unable to repair


What bacteria will be focused on?

E. Coli

What is vertical gene transfer?

The transmission of genes from parent to offspring.

What is horizontal gene transfer?

The way that bacteria divides and how it gains new genes that are beneficial to them..Uses the processes:




GENETIC RECOMBINATION----What is a recombinate?

A chromosome of a bacteria that accepts new DNA. This new DNA will recombine to the new chromosome.

Why does recombination occur?

This is a way they gain new genes that are beneficial so that they can make enzymes that they couldn't make before.

How does recombination occur?

One of the ways is through transformation.

What happened in Griffiths Experiment?.....Poor mouse...Yay for humans!

1. Griffith injected encapsulated bacteria = mouse death.

2. Non- encapsulated bacteria injected = mouse lives - mouse lived because his immune system was able to fight off the NON-ENCAPSULATED bacteria.

3. Heat killed encapsulated(dead) bacteria injected=mouse lives--because there was no growth

--Griffith decided to make a vaccine with the heat killed encapsulated bacteria and the non-encapsulated bacteria---

4. Vaccine was injected to mouse= mouse death

Why did the mouse die with the injection of the vaccine that had both the heat killed encapsulated bacteria and the non-encapsulated bacteria?

The DNA of the dead encapsulated bacteria was still there so the live non-encapsulated bacteria took up the dead bacterial DNA and coded for the capsule. Therefore causes disease and avoided phagocytosis.

What is transformation?

It is the uptake of naked DNA from the environment. The DNA is OUTSIDE OF THE CELL! The bacteria will take the DNA from the outside environment and bring it inside the cell.

Step 1. DNA is imported

Step 2. Recombination can occur. Some of the DNA was taken up will recombine with the chromosome = NEW DNA

What is Conjugation?

Exchanging of DNA between 2 living organisms that connect to each other.

In order for conjugation to occur, what is needed for the organisms to connect?

The pilli/pillus

What does the pilli/pillus transfer?

It transfers a plasmid or a portion of chromosomes.

What is the F-Factor? What is F+?

F-Factor= fertility factor which is a plasmid.

F+ = Bacteria that have the F-factor plasmid

F- = Bacteria that lack the plasmid

What happens if an F+ cell is replicated with a

F- cell?

The F- cell will become an F+ cell.

What does the plasmid help with?

It helps the cell survive.

If a plasmid and bacterial chromosome recombine, what type of cell is made?

HFR cell is created when the plasmid and the bacterial chromosome recombine.

What is the meaning of HFR?

High Frequency of Recombination--Integrated HFR cell

Why is the cell an HFR cell?

F-Factor is no longer part of the plasmid it is part of the chromosome making it an HFR cell because the DNA has recombined with the plasmid making it integrated HFR cell.

Why is an HFR cell not called an F+ cell?

Because the F factor is combined with the chromosome.

Why is an HFR cell unable to transfer plasmid?

Because the plasmid has recombined with the bacterial choromosomal DNA.

If HFR cells cannot transfer plasmid, what can they transfer?

They are capable of transferring part of their DNA. Unable to transfer the plasmid because they lack that plasmid since its recombined.

If and HFR cell conjugates and transfers part of it's DNA to a F- cell, is the F- cell still considered to be an F- cell?

It will still be F- because the plasmid wasn't transferred. It is now a Recombinant cell.

Define Generalized Transduction:

Where bacteria transfers DNA from bacteria to another utilizing a VIRUS.

What are bacterial phages?

Bacterial Phages (phages) are the Virus that infect the bacteria by injecting the RNA or DNA, making a copy of itself.

How does a bacterial phage (virus) infect other cells?
Sometimes the phage will take some of the bacterial chromosomes-- RNA/DNA with it and once it replicates and releases from the cell, the virus now can go and infect other cells.

What's the difference between generalized transduction and conjugation?

Generalized Transduction: Virus transports bacterial DNA. Helps the bacteria be resisitant to antibiotics.

Conjugation: 2 cells connect through sex pilli/pillus and exchange DNA.

What are the different types of plasmids? What do they do?

Conjugative Plasmids: Carries the genes for the sex pilli and transfer the plasmid.

Dissimilation Plasmids: code for enzymes that allow the catabolism of certain sugars

R factors: Encode antibiotic resistance